1808 Presidential Elections - History

1808 Presidential Elections - History

1808 Election Results Madison vS Pickney

Thomas Jefferson followed the precedent Washington set. Jefferson felt that two terms in office were enough for any President to serve. Jefferson's second term had not been as successful as his first. The war between England and France, and the failure of both countries to observe American neutrality resulted in the passage of the Embargo Act. The Embargo Act was very unpopular among the shippers of New England, as well as farmers who exported their crops. It also failed to have any effect on England or France. The Federalist hoped to exploit that unhappiness to unseat the Republicans. Jefferson's hand-picked successor was his long-term friend, and Secretary of State, James Madison. Madison was the unanimous selection of the Republican party. The Federalists ran Charles Pinckney as their candidate once again. The campaign was very spirited, with the Federalists bitterly attacking Madison for the Embargo Act. However, when the electors were selected, it was clear the opposition to the Embargo Act was not as widespread as the Federalists had hoped. Madison easily defeated Pinckney, garnering almost three times as many electoral votes as received by Pinckney.


National Elections of 1808

Contested Nomination. Thomas Jefferson ’ s second term was marred by disputes within his party that threatened the nomination of James Madison as Jefferson ’ s successor in 1808. Congressman John Randolph of Virginia objected to several administration measures that he believed deviated from strict republican principles, and he also resented Jefferson ’ s successful interference in congressional affairs. When Georgia ceded its western lands to the federal government in 1802, the Jefferson administration inherited the problem of straightening out fraudulent land claims granted by the Georgia legislature in 1795. In 1804 Randolph vehemently opposed the recommendation of a committee composed of James Madison, Albert Gallatin, and Levi Lincoln that the federal government compensate the owners of the disputed Yazoo land claims, many of whom were northern speculators. In 1806 Randolph broke completely with Jefferson after the president simultaneously denounced Spain and requested that Congress appropriate funds to acquire Florida from Spain with French help. Randolph and other dissatisfied Republicans, who opposed Jefferson and Madison, their local party leaders, or various national and local policies, formed a loose opposition known as the “ Tertium Quids. ” Their limited numbers, lack of influence in Congress, and the absence of a unified philosophy prevented the Tertium Quids from developing into a third national party or preventing Madison ’ s presidential nomination. Randolph and some of the Tertium Quids supported James Monroe of Virginia as a presidential candidate, while other opponents of Madison favored Vice President George Clinton. Fortunately for Madison, neither supporters of Monroe nor Clinton attended the Republican congressional caucus, which nominated Madison by a vote of 83-6 and renominated Clinton for vice president.


Contents

Democratic-Republican Party nomination

Presidential candidates

Former U.S. Minister to the United Kingdom
James Monroe
of Virginia

Vice-Presidential candidates

Caucus

Nominations for the 1808 presidential election were made by congressional caucuses. With Thomas Jefferson ready to retire, supporters of Secretary of State James Madison of Virginia worked carefully to ensure that Madison would succeed Jefferson. Madison's primary competition came from former Ambassador James Monroe of Virginia and Vice President George Clinton. Monroe was supported by a group known as the tertium quids, who supported a weak central government and were dissatisfied by the Louisiana Purchase and the Compact of 1802. Clinton's support came from Northern Democratic-Republicans who disapproved of the Embargo Act (which they saw as potentially leading towards war with Great Britain) and who sought to end the Virginia Dynasty. The Congressional caucus chose Madison as its candidate for president and Clinton as its candidate for vice president. [1]

Many supporters of Monroe and Clinton refused to accept the result of the caucus. Monroe was nominated by a group of Virginia Democratic-Republicans, and although he did not actively try to defeat Madison, he also refused to withdraw from the race. [2] Clinton was also supported by a group of New York Democratic-Republicans for president even as he remained the party's official vice presidential candidate. [3]

Balloting

Federalist Party nomination

The Federalist caucus renominated General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina and former Senator Rufus King of New York.

Presidential candidates

Former U.S. Minister to France
Charles C. Pinkney

Vice-Presidential candidates


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Presidential Election of 1812: Platforms

Democratic-Republicans: By the time of the Election of 1812 America had declared war on Great Britain. The War of 1812 was the main issue during the election and had been the sentiment in the country since the election of the War Hawks in the 1810 congressional elections.

Federalists: DeWitt Clinton was a true politician in that he took an anti-war stance in the North that was most hurt by the war and a pro-war in the South. The war was the most important topic of this election and Madison was a weaker candidate than he was in 1808.


1808 Election [ edit | edit source ]

Democratic Republican Johnny Tremain defeated Federalist Henry Waldegrave in the U.S. presidential election.

The� United States presidential election was the sixth quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 4, to Wednesday, December 7, 1808. Like Washington before him, Thomas Jefferson chose not to run for a third term. Jefferson's second term was less popular and many merchants were happy to see him go due to his passing of the Embargo Act of 1807. Jefferson was still popular and Democratic Republicans intended to ride his popularity to victory. They chose secretary of state Johnny Tremain, Diplomat Benjamin Martin, and Vice President George Clinton. All three ran for the nominee but is was Tremain who won the nomination. Peleg Peshell, Henry Dearborn, John Langdon(a founding father) were in the running but George Clinton was chosen to remain the Vice President. Clinton didn't want to run for President but some people began a campaign for him anyway. The Federalists made the bold and idiotic move of choosing the same candidates as 1804, despite their humiliating defeat. Henry Waldegrave for the nomination and Rufus King as running mate

Johnny Tremain won, becoming the 4th American President. Tremain received 122 electoral Votes. Pinckney received. Some Democratic-Republicans refused to cast their vote for Tremain. George Clinton received six of those votes. To protest Clinton keeping his position as Vice President, 9 electors chose John Langdon. Benjamin Martin earned 3 electoral votes for Vice President and 2.5% of the popular vote for President. Tremain received 64.7% in the popular vote while Pinckney received 32.4%. Others received .4% of the vote.

Alternate Universes [ edit | edit source ]

James Madison defeats Charles C. Pinckney in the U.S. presidential election. (Real Life)

U.S. President Aaron Burr is re-elected to a third term. (Alternate Presidents)

Johnny Tremain=James Madison

Charles C.Pinckney=Henry Waldegrave


Presidential Election of 1808: A Resource Guide

The digital collections of the Library of Congress contain a variety of material associated with the presidential election of 1808, including manuscripts, broadsides, campaign literature, and government documents. This guide compiles links to digital materials related to the presidential election of 1808 that are available throughout the Library of Congress Web site. In addition, it provides links to external Web sites focusing on the 1808 election and a selected bibliography.

1808 Presidential Election Results [1]

* George Clinton received 6 electoral votes for president from New York.

  • On February 8, 1809, the Electoral College votes for the presidential election of 1808 were counted by a joint session of Congress and reported in the Annals of Congress, as well as in the House Journal and Senate Journal.
    , "Permit me to take the liberty of saying that as you have consented to be put up as the next C Magistrate of the US. however you personally disregard success, you owe it to yr. numerous & honorable friends to take care that you do succeed, limiting that care, as you will ever do, by those obligations which truth & honor impose." [Transcription] , "I have seen it mentioned in sevral of the news papers, that there would be no division among the republicans, on the next presidential election, and I heartily wish I Could see it in the same point of view, but I Confess I do not. As Republicans yourself the Vicepresindent and Mr. Munroe is spoken off, all of which have their favourits in this Country, and if no Accomodation Can be made I fear those of oppasitt politics may get some advantage by it." [Transcription] , "Perhaps it may be deemed presumption in a stranger to trouble you on a subject, in the event of which I have only a common interest with the rest of my fellow Citizens: I mean your election to the presidential chair. But from a devotion, for your talents & character I consider you the best fitted for the important trust of any other that has been proposed, & have taken every opportunity to echo, the wisdom of the selection by a majority of the members of Congress. But Sir, you are not apprised of the deep game, which the Clinton party are playing here." [Transcription] , "I have the honor & pleasure to inform you that I have just signed all the necessary Lists of our Electors & official papers necessary to be authenticated by the Executive & that You have this day recieved the unanimous Vote of the State as President & that our Legislature was unanimous in the choice of Electors so far as that they recieved, Some 135 & others near that out of 136 the whole number of Votes, & to congratulate you on the certainty of your election generally & handsomely every where except perhaps in New England." [Transcription] , "That you had not an unanimous Vote of the Electors of this State is to be regretted particularly on Account of the effect which may be produced on our foreign concerns, by the appearance of a want of unanimity among ourselves. The conduct of Mr. Clinton&rsquos friends is highly exceptionable, though the public Interests may possibly demand that it should be forgotten." [Transcription]

The complete Thomas Jefferson Papers from the Manuscript Division at the Library of Congress consists of approximately 27,000 documents.

    , "A caucus was held on Saturday by the members of Congress at which 89. attended. Mr. Madison had 83. votes, Clinton 3. Monroe 3. as president, & Clinton had 79. as V. President. " [Transcription] , "I see with infinite grief a contest arising between yourself and another, who have been very dear to each other, and equally so to me. I sincerely pray that these dispositions may not be affected between you with me I confidently trust they will not." [Transcription] , "In regard to the approaching election I have been and shall continue to be an inactive Spectator of the mov'ment. Should the nation be disposed to call any citizen to that station it would be his duty to accept it. On that ground I rest. I have done nothing to draw the attention of anyone to me in reference to it, nor shall I in future. No one better knows than I do the merit of Mr. Madison, and I can declare that should he be elected he will have my best wishes for the success of his administration, as well an account of the great interest which I take in what concerns his welfare as in that of my country. His success will give me no personal mortification. It will not lessen my friendship for him which is sincere & strong." [Transcription] , "In the present contest in which you are concerned I feel no passion. I take no part. I expect no sentiment. Which ever of my friends is called to the supreme cares of the nation, I know that they will be wisely & faithfully administered, and as far as my individual conduct can influence they shall be cordially supported." [Transcription] , "The Presidential question is clearing up daily, and the opposition subsiding. It is very possible that the suffrage of the nation may be undivided. But with this question it is my duty not to intermeddle." [Transcription]

The American Presidency Project: Election of 1808

The American Presidency Project Web site presents election results from the 1808 presidential election.

A searchable collection of election returns from 1787 to 1825. The data were compiled by Philip Lampi. The American Antiquarian Society and Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives have mounted it online with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities.


James Madison: Campaigns and Elections

In line with the precedent established by Washington, Thomas Jefferson refused to stand for a third term, endorsing instead his friend Madison as his successor. Jefferson's wish was fulfilled by a Democratic-Republican caucus in Congress, although not without some opposition. The fifty-seven-year-old Madison, along with Jefferson's vice president, George Clinton, headed into the contest fearing the worst.

Jefferson's embargo of all trade with England and France had devastated the nation. New England states spoke openly of secession from the Union. The Federalists, convinced that they would ride the national anger to victory, renominated—without the benefit of a formal caucus—their 1804 contenders, Charles C. Pinckney of South Carolina and Rufus King of New York.

Anti-Madison newspapers swung into action with stories and cartoons that ridiculed Madison's small physical stature and the controversy associated with the embargo. "Why is the embargo like sickness?" asked one critic. "Because it weakens us." More serious were the Federalist charges that Madison had supported the embargo to build up domestic manufactures at the expense of foreign trade. A strong contingent of anti-Madison Democratic-Republicans were convinced that Madison's quiet demeanor sheltered a strong Hamiltonian-Federalist—one who favored a strong central government—in disguise. It took all of Jefferson's prestige and charm to convince dissident Democratic-Republicans, who had rallied around fellow Virginian James Monroe, not to stray into the Federalist camp out of spite for Madison. Even George Clinton, who had accepted the vice presidential nomination, denounced the caucus process and announced his own candidacy for President.

By the time the electoral college delegates cast their individual ballots on December 7, few political pundits harbored any doubts about the election's ultimate outcome, though the contests in Rhode Island and New Hampshire were still shrouded in some doubt. The results announced by Congress on February 8, 1809, came as little surprise: Madison had swamped the opposition. He won 122 votes to Pinckney's 44. The hapless Clinton garnered only six electors from his home state. Madison carried twelve states to Pinckney's five, all of which were in the New England region. The Virginia dynasty had remained intact.

The Campaign and Election of 1812

In the four years from 1808 to 1812, Madison's popularity fluctuated between extreme lows and incredible highs, depending upon the state of affairs with Britain. From the moment he assumed office in 1809, Madison was consumed by Britain's continued violations of America's neutral rights at sea. Nothing he did seemed to satisfy his critics. Challenges to his alleged pro-French policies reached fever pitch in the New England states, which had been impoverished by the actions that Jefferson and Madison took to cut off trade with England.

Some congressmen from the Midwest and South, determined to drive the British from Canada and the Spanish from west Florida, called on Madison to confront British-instigated Indian attacks in the Ohio River Valley. In June 1812, Madison sent Congress a special message listing American complaints against Britain. Not a declaration of war, which offended Madison's strict constructionist interpretation of the Constitution, the message asked Congress to decide the proper course of action. Later that month, after much debate, the House (79 to 49) and then the Senate (19 to 13) voted the nation into the War of 1812.

Madison's nomination for a second term came just fifteen days prior to his war message to Congress. On May 18, 1812, Madison received the endorsement of congressional Democratic-Republicans in their nominating caucus. Nevertheless, roughly one-third of Republican legislators boycotted the caucus altogether, vowing not to participate in renomination of the President. For second place, the caucus chose John Langdon of New Hampshire. Langdon declined the invitation, leading the caucus to select the venerable Elbridge Gerry, the "Gentleman Democrat" from Massachusetts and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, for the vice presidency.

A rebellious group of New York Democratic-Republicans who had participated in the caucus boycott supported the mayor of New York City, DeWitt Clinton, the nephew of former Vice President George Clinton, who had died in office. Clinton supporters hoped to forge a winning coalition among Republicans opposed to the coming war, Democratic-Republicans angry with Madison for not moving more decisively toward war, northerners weary of the Virginia dynasty and southern control of the White House, and disgruntled New Englanders who wanted almost anyone over Madison. Dismayed about the prospects of beating Madison, a group of top Federalists met with Clinton's supporters to discuss a unification strategy. Difficult as it was for them to join forces, this assembly of notables nominated Clinton for President and Jared Ingersoll, a Philadelphia lawyer, for vice president.

The Clintonians, who had no official party name, tailored their message to the region and the audience. They said one thing to war Democratic-Republicans, another to peace Democratic-Republicans, and something else again to antiwar Federalists. Their tactics turned the honorable John Quincy Adams, son of the former Federalist President John Adams, against his former party colleagues. The elder Adams, in fact, not only endorsed Madison but also agreed to head Madison's electoral ticket in his home district of Quincy, Massachusetts.

While the New England and mid-Atlantic opposition gave 89 votes to Clinton, Madison carried eleven states and 128 electoral ballots. He won all the southern states as well as Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Vermont. The Federalists had seriously weakened, if not completely destroyed, their status as an established party by their fusionist strategy. To be fair, it is unlikely that any other strategy would have achieved victory against a seated President waging what many at the time called the Second American Revolution. (See Foreign Affairs section for more on the Second American Revolution.) No incumbent wartime President before or since Madison has ever lost his bid for reelection.


Why was the election of 1808 important?

On February 8, 1809, the Electoral College votes for the presidential election of 1808 were counted by a joint session of Congress and reported in the Annals of Congress, as well as in the House Journal and Senate Journal.

Also Know, has any president run unopposed? It was the third and last United States presidential election in which a presidential candidate ran effectively unopposed. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams received the only other electoral vote, which came from faithless elector William Plumer.

Regarding this, what was the significance of the election of 1812?

Taking place in the shadow of the War of 1812, incumbent Democratic-Republican President James Madison defeated DeWitt Clinton, who drew support from dissident Democratic-Republicans in the North as well as Federalists. It was the first presidential election to be held during a major war involving the United States.

What did James Madison promise?

In achieving the ratification of the Bill of Rights, Madison fulfilled his promise to Jefferson, who had supported the Constitution with the understanding that Madison would secure constitutional protections for various fundamental human rights&mdashreligious liberty, freedom of speech, and due process, among others&mdashagainst


Watch the video: Electoral Emissions E6 - 1808 Election