Yolo LST 677 - History

Yolo LST 677 - History

Yolo
(LST-677: dp. 3,960; 1. 328'0"; b. 60'0"; dr. 11'2"; B. 10.0 k.; cpl. 151; trp. 340; a. 8 40mm.; cl. LST-542)

LST-677 was laid down on 25 April 1944 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge and Iron Co.; launched on 16 June 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Lee S. Kreeger; ferried down the Mississippi River to New Orleans; and commissioned there on 3 July 1944, Lt. Charles R. Bast, USNR, in command.

LST-677 conducted her shakedown training out of Panama City, Fla., and then loaded naval construction battalion (SeaBee) equipment at Gulfport, Miss., before embarking men of the staff of LST Flotilla 6 for transport to combat staging areas. She put to sea from New Orleans on the morning of 8 August 1944, with a convoy bound for Cuba, and then proceeded by way of the Panama Canal and San Diego to the Hawaiian Islands.

She reached Pearl Harbor on 19 September and, in the ensuing weeks, conducted amphibious warfare exercises at Maui with Army amphibious teams and their embarked tracked landing vehicles. That duty came to an end on 19 October when she moored at the amphibious repair dock at Waipio Point, Pearl Harbor, for conversion to a highly specialized type of support ship for amphibious operations.

LST-677's conversion to a landing craft tender, or self-propelled barracks ship, was completed by 21 January 1945. The ship—reclassified initially to LST(M)677—Spent the following days taking on 406 tons of fresh, frozen, and dry provisions and embarking 316 officers and men of a boat pool for transportation to the Solomon Islands. She left Hawaii astern on the morning of 2 February with an amphibious task group that carried out battle rehearsals in the Solomons before proceeding by way of the Carolines to Okinawa. During the voyage to the next stop on the island hopping campaign toward the Japanese home islands, LST(M)-677 was reclassified a self propelled barracks ship, APB-43, and given the name Yolo, effective on 31 March.

Yolo arrived off Okinawa on 1 April—D day for that strongly held island—and added to the gunfire that drove away enemy bombers that threatened the formation in which she was steaming. The following day, she opened fire on a suicide plane, joining the other ships nearby in putting up a devastating antiaircraft barrage that literally blew the plane to bits. That same day, she became the headquarters ship for the 70th Naval SeaBee Pontoon Barge detachment and commenced tender duties that, in the ensuing weeks, saw her service or provision small craft alongside on 916 occasions.

Yolo dispensed a grand total of 991 tons of issues— including 614 tons of dry provisions and 477 tons of frozen foods; delivered nearly 200,000 gallons of fuel to small craft, handled more than 12,000 communications and brought on board several casualties from shore for emergency treatment while they were waiting to be transferred to hospital ships. Under day and night threat of enemy suicide planes and bombers, she shot down one aircraft, assisted in the downing of three others, and witnessed the destruction of more than 60 enemy planes in the vicinity of her anchorage.

Yolo's duties at Okinawa terminated on 28 June when she sailed for the Philippines with a convoy of amphibious vessels that reached San Pedro Bay, Leyte, on 3 July. Upon her arrival, she reported for duty to Service Squadron 10 and was assigned to Service Division (ServDiv) 101. On 22 July, she sailed for Subic Bay with fresh provisions for an attack transport and two attack cargo ships. She then embarked a draft of 60 men for passage back to Leyte. With the cessation of hostilities with Japan in mid-August 1945, Yolo became "home" for 236 men of ServDiv 101 awaiting occupation service in Japan. She headed out to sea on 3 September; joined a troop convoy off Batangas, Luzon, and proceeded thence to Tokyo Bay where she anchored on 16 September—less than a fortnight after the formal Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay.

Assigned to the Yokohama area, she provisioned small craft on an emergency basis and provided living quarters for men from various naval units until permanent facilities were established ashore. When Yolo's occupation service in the Far East came to an end, she was routed by way of the Panama Canal to Norfolk, VA., where she was decommissioned on 9 August 1946. Assigned to the Norfolk Group of the Reserve Fleet Yolo remained in reserve until struck from the Navy list on 1 May 1959. She was removed from Navy custody on 6 February 1960 and sold to the J. C Berkwit Co., of New York City, and subsequently scrapped.
Yolo (APB-43) earned one battle star for her World War II service.


World War II [ edit | edit source ]

Yolo was laid down on 25 April 1944 as LST-677 at Ambridge, Pennsylvania., by the American Bridge & Iron Co. She was launched on 16 June 1944, sponsored by Mrs. Lee S. Kreeger and subsequently ferried down the Mississippi River to New Orleans where she was commissioned on 3 July 1944, with Lieutenant Charles R. Bast, USNR, in command. Ώ]

LST-677 conducted her shakedown training out of Panama City, Florida, and then loaded Naval Construction Battalion equipment at Gulfport, Mississippi, before embarking men of the staff of LST Flotilla 6 for transport to combat staging areas. She put to sea from New Orleans on the morning of 8 August 1944, with a convoy bound for the Republic of Cuba, and then proceeded by way of the Panama Canal and San Diego to the Hawaiian Islands. Yolo reached Pearl Harbor on 19 September and, in the ensuing weeks, conducted amphibious warfare exercises at Maui with US Army amphibious teams and their embarked tracked landing vehicles. That duty came to an end on 19 October 1944 when she moored at the amphibious repair dock at Waipio, Pearl Harbor, for conversion to a highly specialized type of support ship for amphibious operations. Ώ]

LST-677 ' s conversion to a landing craft tender, or self-propelled barracks ship, was completed by 21 January 1945. The ship, reclassified initially to LST(M)-677, spent the following days taking on 406 tons of fresh, frozen, and dry provisions and embarking 315 officers and men of a boat pool for transportation to the Solomon Islands. She left Hawaii astern on the morning of 2 February with an amphibious task group that carried out battle rehearsals in the Solomons before proceeding by way of the Carolines to Okinawa. During the voyage to the next stop on the island-hopping campaign toward the Japanese home islands, LST(M)-677 was reclassified a self-propelled barracks ship, APB-43, and given the name Yolo, effective on 31 March 1945. Ώ]

Battle of Okinawa [ edit | edit source ]

Yolo arrived off the island of Okinawa on 1 April 1945, and added to the intense gunfire that drove away Japanese bombers that threatened the formation in which she was steaming. The following day, she opened fire on a Kamikaze plane, joining the other ships nearby in putting up a devastating anti-aircraft barrage. That same day, she became the headquarters ship for the 70th Naval SeaBee Pontoon Barge detachment and commenced tender duties that, in the ensuing weeks, saw her service or provision small craft alongside on 915 occasions. Ώ]

Yolo dispensed a grand total of 991 tons of issues, including 514 tons of dry provisions and 477 tons of frozen foods delivered nearly 200,000 gallons of fuel to small craft handled more than 12,000 communications and brought on board several casualties from shore for emergency treatment while they were waiting to be transferred to hospital ships. Under day and night threat of enemy suicide planes and bombers, she shot down one aircraft, assisted in the downing of three others and witnessed the destruction of more than 50 enemy planes in the vicinity of her anchorage. Yolo ' s duties at Okinawa ended on 28 June when she sailed for the Philippines with a convoy of amphibious vessels that reached San Pedro Bay, Leyte, on 3 July 1945. Ώ]

International radio call sign of
USS Yolo (APB-43)
November Foxtrot Lima Echo

Post-War [ edit | edit source ]

Upon her arrival, she reported for duty to Service Squadron 10 and was assigned to Service Division 101. On 22 July, she sailed for Subic Bay with fresh provisions for an attack transport and two attack cargo ships. She then embarked a draft of 50 men for passage back to Leyte. With the cessation of hostilities with Japan in mid-August 1945, Yolo became "home" for 235 men of ServDiv 101 awaiting occupation service in Japan. She headed out to sea on 3 September joined a troop convoy off Batangas, Luzon and proceeded thence to Tokyo Bay where she anchored on 15 September, less than a fortnight after the formal Japanese surrender. Assigned to the Yokohama area, she provisioned small craft on an emergency basis and provided living quarters for men from various naval units until permanent facilities were established ashore. Ώ]


Yolo was laid down on 25 April 1944 as LST-677 at Ambridge, Pennsylvania, by the American Bridge & Iron Co. She was launched on 16 June 1944, sponsored by Mrs. Lee S. Kreeger and subsequently ferried down the Mississippi River to New Orleans where she was commissioned on 3 July 1944, with Lieutenant Charles R. Bast, USNR, in command. [1]

LST-677 conducted her shakedown training out of Panama City, Florida, and then loaded Naval Construction Battalion equipment at Gulfport, Mississippi, before embarking men of the staff of LST Flotilla 6 for transport to combat staging areas. She put to sea from New Orleans on the morning of 8 August 1944, with a convoy bound for the Republic of Cuba, and then proceeded by way of the Panama Canal and San Diego to the Hawaiian Islands. Yolo reached Pearl Harbor on 19 September and, in the ensuing weeks, conducted amphibious warfare exercises at Maui with US Army amphibious teams and their embarked tracked landing vehicles. That duty came to an end on 19 October 1944 when she moored at the amphibious repair dock at Waipio, Pearl Harbor, for conversion to a highly specialized type of support ship for amphibious operations. [1]

LST-677 &apos s conversion to a landing craft tender, or self-propelled barracks ship, was completed by 21 January 1945. The ship, reclassified initially to LST(M)-677, spent the following days taking on 406 tons of fresh, frozen, and dry provisions and embarking 315 officers and men of a boat pool for transportation to the Solomon Islands. She left Hawaii astern on the morning of 2 February with an amphibious task group that carried out battle rehearsals in the Solomons before proceeding by way of the Carolines to Okinawa. During the voyage to the next stop on the island-hopping campaign toward the Japanese home islands, LST(M)-677 was reclassified a self-propelled barracks ship, APB-43, and given the name Yolo, effective on 31 March 1945. [1]

Battle of Okinawa

Yolo arrived off the island of Okinawa on 1 April 1945, and added to the intense gunfire that drove away Japanese bombers that threatened the formation in which she was steaming. The following day, she opened fire on a Kamikaze plane, joining the other ships nearby in putting up a devastating anti-aircraft barrage. That same day, she became the headquarters ship for the 70th Naval SeaBee Pontoon Barge detachment and commenced tender duties that, in the ensuing weeks, saw her service or provision small craft alongside on 915 occasions. [1]

Yolo dispensed a grand total of 991 tons of issues, including 514 tons of dry provisions and 477 tons of frozen foods delivered nearly 200,000 gallons of fuel to small craft handled more than 12,000 communications and brought on board several casualties from shore for emergency treatment while they were waiting to be transferred to hospital ships. Under day and night threat of enemy suicide planes and bombers, she shot down one aircraft, assisted in the downing of three others and witnessed the destruction of more than 50 enemy planes in the vicinity of her anchorage. Yolo &apos s duties at Okinawa ended on 28 June when she sailed for the Philippines with a convoy of amphibious vessels that reached San Pedro Bay, Leyte, on 3 July 1945. [1]


Decommissioned ships [ edit | edit source ]

Surface combatant [ edit | edit source ]

    Destroyer Escorts (DE)
      (DE 71 formerly USS Muir (DE-770)) (DE 72 formerly USS Sutton (DE-771)) (DE 73/DE 821 formerly USS Holt (DE-706))
      (DD 91/DD 911 formerly USS Erben (DD-631)) (DD 92/DD 912 formerly USS Halsey Powell (DD-686)) (DD 93/DD 913 formerly USS Hickox (DD-673)) (DD 95/DD 915 formerly USS Chevalier (DD-805)) (DD 96/DD 916 formerly USS Everett F. Larson (DD-830) donated as a museum) (DD 97/DD 917 formerly USS Wallace L. Lind (DD-703)) (DD 98/DD 918 formerly USS De Haven (DD-727)) (DD 99/DD 919 formerly USS New (DD-818)) (DD 921 formerly USS Richard E. Kraus (DD-849)) (DD 922 formerly USS William R. Rush (DD-714) donated as a museum) (DD 923 formerly USS Newman K. Perry (DD-883)) (DD 925 formerly USS Rogers (DD-876) donated as a museum)

    Submarines [ edit | edit source ]

    Patrol [ edit | edit source ]

      (PCC: Patrol Combat Corvette)
      • ROKS Donghae (PCC 751)
      • ROKS Suwon (PCC 752)
      • ROKS Gangneung (PCC 753)
      • ROKS Anyang (PCC 755)
      • ROKS Pohang (PCC 756) (PCC 757) (PCC 772) (sunk)
        (PG 313)
      • Chungmugong II (PG 315) Ώ]

      ROKS Beakdusan (PC 701)

      • Submarine Chasers (PC)
          (PC 701 formerly USS PC-823)
      • Geumgangsan (PC 702 formerly USS PC-799)
      • Samgaksan (PC 703 formerly USS PC-802)
      • Jirisan (PC 704 formerly USS PC-810 struck a mine and sank, December 1951)
      • Hallasan (PC 705 formerly USS PC-485)
      • Myohyangsan (PC 706 formerly USS PC-600) (PC 707 formerly USS Winnemucca (PC-1145))
      • Geumjeongsan (PC 708 formerly USS Grosse Pointe (PC-1546))
      • Seoraksan (PC 709 formerly USS Chadron (PC-564))
      • ROKS Imjingang (PF 66)

        Personnel of ROK Navy stand at attention on board PT boat while Korean national anthem is played.


        Yolo County Flooding

        Yolo County, California has a history of flooding including levee breaks, Cache Creek overflows, and numerous floods along the waterways surrounding Yolo county communities such as Davis, Winters, West Sacramento, and Woodland. Like most of the areas near the Sacramento Delta, communities in Yolo rely on a system of levees to protect low-lying properties from floods. However, the levee system isn’t perfect as past breaches have shown. The risk of flooding is always present.

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        In addition to learning about specific threats to your community, stay informed by paying attention to the weather. Flooding often occurs during the rainy season when heavy rainfall and swollen creeks and rivers combine into a torrential flood event. The NOAA Web site is an excellent resource for staying on top of the latest local weather along with river levels. Not only can you see forecasts, you can follow links to river stage maps detailing the creeks and rivers throughout Yolo County.

        Information is vital to being prepared. Create a basic disaster kit so that should you be stranded by a flood, you will have emergency food, water, and first aid supplies on hand. Store this kit up high such as on the second story of your home or in the attic. Better yet, create a plan for escape should you have enough warning to evacuate.

        Despite your preparations, your home may flood (and it might be from a burst pipe or toilet overflow). Should this occur, water damage is sure to follow. Prompt drying out is essential. Consider a professional water damage restoration professional for thorough service and damage mitigation.


        You've only scratched the surface of Quang family history.

        Between 1980 and 2004, in the United States, Quang life expectancy was at its lowest point in 1980, and highest in 1998. The average life expectancy for Quang in 1980 was 53, and 66 in 2004.

        An unusually short lifespan might indicate that your Quang ancestors lived in harsh conditions. A short lifespan might also indicate health problems that were once prevalent in your family. The SSDI is a searchable database of more than 70 million names. You can find birthdates, death dates, addresses and more.


        WWI, WWII, Korean War and Vietnam Morning Reports

        Our expert research specialists are physically on-site at the National Archives research center where the Army morning reports and rosters are maintained. With nearly a decade of experience in researching unit records and military service records, in person at the National Archives- our research team has the expertise necessary to answer the questions that you have about your Army veteran’s service and the unit to which they were assigned. Morning reports show what was happening to individual men within Army units, the casualties they suffered, the locations they visited and a wide variety of other details. Unlike operational records which focus on activity within the battalion or regiment as a whole, the morning reports detail activity at the company, battery or squadron level. Morning reports are important because they allow us to trace the steps of individual men and to reconstruct the service history of many veterans whose service records were lost in the 1973 fire.


        Yolo LST 677 - History

        I arrived at the U.S.Naval Training Station, Sampson, New York on December 8, 1943 at the height of a blizzard and was assigned to Unit F, Co. 432. We had reveille at 5:30 each morning, ate breakfast at 5:50, lunch at 12:00, and supper at 5:30. In between we drilled all day until taps at 9:30 p.m. After a few weeks of training I was interviewed for the possibility of going to school for a rating. During this period I received notice of my passing the examination for entry into the Merchant Marine Officers school at Kingspoint, New York. I had taken a test prior to getting my "greetings" aboard their school ship Keystone State moored on the Delaware River earlier in November. I declined to accept this appointment and decided to stay in the Navy.

        The results of my tests while at Sampson qualified me to go to radio school. Those who had taken the tests and not qualified for schooling were sent immediately for sea duty. On December 10, 1943, I graduated from Sampson and was given a short leave to go home before getting my next assignment.

        On February 10, 1943 1 arrived at my next assignment, the U.S. Naval Training School for Radio, at Keystone Schools, Bedford Springs, Pa. where we now became known as the "Mountain Navy". Keystone Schools was housed in the former Bedford Springs Hotel which had been taken over by the U.S.Navy. The hotel had a golf course and tennis courts which we could use. A stream ran through the golf course and this had trout and other smaller fish in it. Many of which I caught during my stay there. The food was excellent since the original hotel cooks and bakers were kept on. I spent sixteen weeks studying Morse code and radio procedure and typing. During my stay there I formed a swing band and we played for dances at the local WMCA. On the weekends I would get a pass and hitch-hike home, which was nice.

        On June 27,1944 1 graduated from the school as a radioman striker and was sent to the Amphibious Training Base, Camp Bradford, Norfolk, Virginia. At Camp Bradford we were assigned to four in a tent. Each day we drilled and trained on amphibious craft. On my weekends off I would hitch-hike home just to spend a few hours with Mom. Ray was overseas in the Army in Germany. I had to take the ferry in those days since there was no Bay Bridge built yet. I never had trouble getting a lift since people were very kind to servicemen during the war years.

        Our crew was formed in late November and we left Camp Bradford for Chicago. After a two day train ride we arrived there and were assigned to the Navy Pier where we stayed for two weeks. I had liberty every night while in Chicago and went to see some great band's including Gene Krupa who was playing at the Panther Room of the hotel Sherman. Eight of the division heads were sent to Seneca, Illinois. Since I was the head of the radiomen I was included in this group. The balance of our crew was sent to Great Lakes Naval Training Station for gunnery practice.

        We arrived at the shipyard in Seneca. It was really nothing but a former cow pasture on the banks of the Illinois River. The name of the shipyard was the Chicago Bridge and Iron Works. Our ship, LIST-853 (Landing Ship Tank), had already been launched and was tied up at the wharf. My job was to become familiar with the ship's radio equipment. The radio room was located on the bridge behind the wheelhouse. To my relief it turned out that most of the equipment was the same as I trained with at Camp Bradford. Any questions I did have were answered by a civilian from the company who made the gear. We had liberty from 4 o'clock until 8 o'clock the next morning, and I would go into the town of Ottawa, Illinois, which was nearby. They had a good band at one of the local pubs and I would sit in on the drums quite often, which were a blast. On December first the balance of our crew returned from gunnery school. Due to the fact that our ship was not officially in commission, our Captain was not in charge, and we had a ferry crew aboard, all of who were members of the Coast Guard, to man our ship. There were about fifteen men in the ferry crew, however, none were radiomen, so I was responsible for the efficiency of the radioroom and the sending and receiving of any messages.

        On the whole the trip down the Illinois River into the Mississippi River was quite unimpressive. The Mississippi River was the muddiest river I have ever seen. We were in contact with the Coast Guard station in St.Louis, and every evening we had to send out a dispatch to let them know our ETA (estimated time of arrival) at various positions. The Coast Guard captain told our captain that our radio crew was really on the ball which made him quite pleased since things had been going wrong in most of the other divisions on the ship. One day, the engineer department members opened a wrong valve and the next morning the main deck was covered with fuel oil. There we no ship's stores aboard as yet and nearly everyone was out of smokes. It was even hard to find a butt in an ashtray. When we reached Baton Rouge, Louisiana, we tied up to a French tanker to take on fuel and our fellows were paying as much as five dollars a pack for smokes. This was quite an increase for smoking since the price aboard navy ships normally is a nickel a pack.

        When we finally reached New Orleans we tied up to a dock at the Naval Repair Base. We no sooner had our lines secured than a gang of workers piled aboard to install our equipment. We were only in port a couple of weeks in New Orleans. I didn't have much time for liberty there since we were busy getting the radioroom ready for our shakedown cruise. I did go to one jazz concert that featured Louis Armstrong and renamed a street. Basin Street.

        We left New Orleans for Panama City, Florida, for our shakedown cruise, and when we arrive,d other LST's were already there. For the next two weeks we underwent various operations that we had to know to prepare us for invasion landings. We practiced beaching and even went on a mock invasion of a small nearby island off Florida which included air attacks. On our last day we had a final inspection by a Commander and then we pulled up anchor and headed back to New Orleans. We were only there a couple of days when we received orders to go to Balboa in the Canal Zone. On January 19th we left the United States for Balboa. We had a very good trip until we entered the Caribbean where the weather became a bit choppy.

        On January 25th at 9:30, we lay off the Panama Canal. The next day we started through the Canal. When we reached Gatun Lake, we anchored beside the battle cruiser Guam, and some of our men went swimming off our ship. After leaving the Canal, we came up along the coast of Mexico on our way to San Diego, California. During this trip we saw schools of tuna and many billfish. On February 11th we reached San Diego and pulled into the Destroyer Repair Base. We were at the Base for a couple of days and then left for Port Hueume, California, but while underway, we received a message to proceed to San Francisco instead. On February 18th we passed under the Golden Gate Bridge and dropped anchor near the Oakland Bridge. I had quite a few liberty days in Frisco and Oakland.

        On February 25th we left Frisco for Seattle, Washington, and arrived there on the first of March. We tied up to Pier 90 for a short time and then shifted our berth to the Sound Construction and Engineering Dock to take on a cargo of trucks, jeeps, and Piper Cub planes. Liberty in Seattle was pretty good. I saw some excellent bands while I was there. We were told that this was our last stop in the States and it was. On March 10th we took on 111 Negro soldiers of "C" Company, 1908 Engineer Aviation Battalion and their equipment. With us were three other LST's and on our main deck we carried an LCT (Landing Craft Tank). Most of the colored troops had never been aboard a ship before and the waters off the Washington coast at that time of year were quite rough. We had a bunch of seasick soldiers on board for the next week. Our next destination was Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

        On the 23rd of March we entered Pearl Harbor with Diamond Head on our starboard side, and we unloaded our jeeps and trucks at Hickam Field, and then docked at Kewalo Basin, Honolulu, and the soldiers were put ashore for some special training. Some years later my son Jay's boat, the Maggie Joe, used this same mooring location. While in Hawaii we had repairs done to both propellers and our bow doors which had been damaged from a collision with another landing craft after leaving New Orleans. We also had two 2x30 pontoons lashed to the sides of our ship. These pontoons were to be used in beachhead landings. On the 4th of April, we left Pearl Harbor for the island of Eniwetok, in the Marshal Islands chain, in company with 11 LST's and 8 LCM (Landing Craft Medium). On the 10th of April, we crossed the International Date Line and I became an official member of the "Sacred Order of the Golden Dragon".

        We entered Eniwetok lagoon on the 16th and were there for 36 hours before getting underway for Guam in the Mariana islands. On the 21st of April entered Port Apra, Guam, and were there two days before we got further orders to go the Saipan in the Marianas, a two day run. Upon arriving at Saipan, we anchored in Tanapag Harbor where we discharged the men of Co. "C", 1908th Aviation Engineers and received aboard Co. "C", 1878th Engineer Aviation Battalion for transfer to Okinawa in the Ryukyu Islands. I became very friendly with one of the officers of this outfit who had a small record player, and he would come up to the radioroom with it. I had some drumsticks which I bought in Seattle and he wanted to learn to play the drums. We had some great jam sessions together. He had been on Saipan since D-Day which was over a year ago and he said that there were still hundreds of Japanese soldiers in caves who were refusing to surrender.

        We left Saipan on the 27th of April for Okinawa in the company of 7 LST's, 2 LSM's and 2 destroyer escorts. A few days out heavy weather caused the pontoon on the starboard side of the ship to break loose and since we couldn't recover it, one of the destroyer escorts sank it with gunfire. On the night of the 28th we picked up an SOS from the Navy hospital ship Comfort, which was being bombed and strafed off the coast of Okinawa. On the 2nd of May we lay off the coast of Okinawa at night and you could plainly see star shells and gun flashes all over the island. On the 3rd day of May we anchored in Hagushi Anchorage and were treated to four air raids that day. On the afternoon of the next day we fired our starboard batteries at an enemy bomber (Betty) that was approaching our ship, just off the water. The portside 20mm gun on the LCT we were carrying on our deck suffered at hit with three men wounded, one seriously. We had two other air raids that day. Sometimes we would get an air raid alert but would never have planes come over. The reason for this was the fact that the planes never got past the picket line. This line was made up of destroyers and other ships stationed about five miles off the coast that used their radar controlled anti-aircraft guns to shoot down the Japanese planes as they came into the island. The ships on the picket line took the brunt of the raids but usually succeeded in shooting down the enemy planes. The Navy suffered the greatest loss of ships and personnel during the war at the battle of Okinawa.

        On May 6th we beached our ship at Green Beach #1, Hagushi, to unload personnel and equipment of Co. "C" 18178th Engineer Aviation Battalion. We had six air raids this date followed by two more the next day. On the 8th we completed unloading our cargo and retracted from the beach. We shifted our berth to Nakagusuku Wan, later called Buckner Bay after General Buckner who was killed by a sniper during the invasion. We had three air raids this day. We anchored about a half mile from the carrier Bennington. The next day we had a daylight raid and two Japanese Zeros were hit by the guns of the Bennington. One plane crashed into the ocean but the other made a suicide dive into the bridge of the Bennington. We learned later that the plane went through four decks and killed seventeen sailors. On this day we heard the good news of Germany's surrender which gave us much to celebrate.

        On May 10th the remaining pontoon tied to the side of our ship was launched and the following day the LCT was launched from our main deck. During this time we had three air raids. On the night of the 11th we had an unidentified plane with no recognition lights showing fly over us. We did not open fire since we were covered with a smoke screen from our smoke generator but some of the other ships did. We found out the next day that it was one of our older type seaplanes still carried on some cruisers. No one it the plane so it didn't become a victim of friendly fire.

        This was the night that I almost became a casualty of war. I had been on radio watch continuously for almost 24 hours because of the constant air raids I had gotten off duty and hit the sack to get some badly needed rest. The sleeping quarters for Petty Officers were in the fantail of the ship. Our bunks were in tiers of three, and I had the middle bunk in my tier. Because of an impending air raid we had started our smoke generator which was on the main deck above my sleeping quarters. Above my bunk area there was an escape hatch which was to be closed during general quarters, someone had failed to close this hatch. I had fallen to sleep and didn't hear the alarm for general quarters and smoke from smokescreen generator poured down into the after crew's quarters. I awakened from the smell of the smoke hardly able to get my breath. I started to get out of my bunk and the smoke was so thick I could hardly see. I must have passed out from smoke inhalation onto the steel deck. The combination of the cold deck and being down low caused me to gain consciousness and through the smoke I could make out the light at the passageway hatch. I crawled towards it on my hands and knees. In the meantime, one of the other radiomen had come to hunt for me since I was not at my post in the radioroom. He found me at the hatch entrance and helped me to sickbay where they gave me oxygen and in a short while I recovered. This was the closest call I had during my tour in the service.

        A mass of shipping such had seldom been assembled in history lay off the coast of Okinawa carrying supplies and reinforcements, and this caused the Japanese to stop at nothing to destroy the ships with every weapon at their disposal. There was the ever-present threat of suicide weapons other than aircraft, such as explosive motor boats, human torpedoes and swimmers carrying limpet mines. The Japanese had positioned a large number of Shinyo type suicide craft on Okinawa. These were explosive motor boats about 21 feet in length with a speed of 28 knots. The armament was an explosive charge of TNT or two depth charges stowed in the bow. These boats would approach the target in groups of three from astern. The boats fitted with depth charges would drop them within a few feet of the ship's side while the boats with TNT bow charges would make a high-speed run-in and impact the ship's side. Some of these crafts were intended to carry swimmers armed with limpet mines or "spar" type explosive charges. One evening while we were at anchor our lookouts spotted a large floating log off our starboard side. We turned on our floodlights and one of our twin 40mm guns opened fire on it, blowing it out of the water. Japanese swimmers were known to hide behind such floating objects and when they got close to a ship they would throw hand grenades on the deck. We might have had such a situation that night but we never found out since the blast from the 40mm threw everything sky high.

        Between the 12th and 17th of May we averaged at least one air raid a night. On the 17th the head of each division was allowed to go ashore. I went into some village that had really been leveled by gunfire. The people there were native Okinawans, and they were friendly and glad to see Americans. I traded for some coins with them. On the 18th of May we were underway from Okinawa enroute to Saipan in the company of 7 other LST's, 26 LSM's, and 4 destroyer escorts. On the 25th of May, 1945 we anchored in Saipan harbor, where we took on troops and supplies. On June 4th we left Saipan enroute to Leyte, P.I., in the company of 30 other LST's.

        On June 10th we anchored in San Pedro Bay, Leyte, P.I., where we stayed for two days before heading for Luzon, P.I., in the company of various LST's of the Pacific Fleet. On the 15th of June we entered Subic Bay, Luzon, P.I., and beached prior to loading cargo. The next day we completed loading troops and equipment of Co. "B", 440th Signal Heavy Construction Battalion, and retracted from the beach and anchored in Subic Bay.

        On the 18th of June we left Luzon enroute to Okinawa in the company of 8 LST's. The next day we picked up two escorts at San Fernando Roads, Luzon, P.I. We arrived at Okinawa on the 24th of June where we anchored in Hagushi Anchorage. The following day we shifted our berth to Toguchi, Okinawa, where we beached and commenced unloading our cargo. After a day of unloading we retracted from the beach. That day we ran aground on a reef in the Toguchi Anchorage. The ship was finally floated free from the reef with the assistance of another LST in the afternoon. We did not sustain any major damaged to our ship. On the 25th of June we were underway for Hagushi Anchorage from Toguchi, Okinawa. We moored our bow to a pontoon causeway at Purple Beach #2, Hagushi where we loaded troops and equipment of the 307 Infantry, U.S.Army.

        On the 29th of June we got underway from Okinawa enroute to Leyte, P.I., in the company of 10 LST's and 3 escorts. We arrived in the San Pedro Bay, P.I., on the 4th of July. The following day we left Leyte for Cebu, P.I., which was a one day trip. We anchored in Magellan Bay, Cebu, P.I., on July 6th and the following day we left for Danao, Cebu. We beached north of Danao Point and disembarked troops and equipment of the 307th Infantry. We retracted from the beach and anchored in Magellan Bay. On the 8th of July we shifted our berth from Magellan Bay to Cebu City, P.I., and the following day left for Subic Bay, where we arrived and commenced a three day anchor availability. On the 14th of July we beached at Subic Bay and commenced loading personnel and equipment of the 5th Air force. After a days loading we retracted from the beach and anchored in Subic Bay. The following day we left our anchorage enroute to Okinawa in the company of 14 LST's and 3 escorts. On the 17th of July we anchored in San Fernando Roads, Lingayen, P.I. On the 18th we finally got underway for Okinawa. We had a U.S.Army air-sea rescue boat in tow but in heavy weather the bridge of the crash boat broke loose and our tow was lost. The crash boat had to return to port. Our convoy had to maneuver off eastern Luzon to avoid a typhoon to the North.

        On July 23rd we arrived at Okinawa and anchored in Hagushi area. The following day we beached at Hamasak Beach, Okinawa, and commenced unloading personnel and cargo of the 5th Air force. The following day we completed our unloading and headed for Buckner Bay where we anchored. The next day we moored our bow onto the Yonabaru landing dock. We loaded U.S. Army infantry units of the 96th division and then cast off from the dock and anchored in Yonabaru Wan. We had four air raids over the next three days.

        On August 1, 1945 we got underway from Yonabaru Wan enroute to Leyte, P.I., in the company of 24 LST's and 3 escorts. Three days out to sea we were attacked by two Japanese submarines who fired there torpedoes but hit none of our convoy. One of the destroyer escorts with us dropped her depth charges and sank one of the subs. We sent a message to Leyte for aircover and they sent out a Mariner flying boat. The following day we ran into a typhoon and the flying boat was forced to land because of the heavy weather and it was badly damaged. Being unable to get airborne, one of our escorts rescued the drew and then sank the Mariner with gunfire. This trip was very eventful. Our escorts sighted floating mines ahead of our convoy which could have been laid by the submarines that attacked us. These mines were exploded by our escorts by gunfire.

        On August 7th we finally arrived at Leyte and anchored in San Pedro Bay. We stayed there two days and then in the company of 9 other LST's left for Mindoro, P.I. On August 11th we anchored in Mangarin Bay, Mindoro, P.I., and shortly after- wards we were underway for beaching south of Bugsango Point to unload personnel and equipment of army infantry units of the 96th Division. Upon completion of unloading, we returned to our anchorage in Mangarin Bay. The following day we left Mindoro, enroute to Zamboanga, Mindanao, P.I., in the company of 9 other LST's. Two days later we arrived at Zamboanga and beached at San Mateio Beach. On August 15th we received news of the surrender of Japan and we broke out our supply of beer and all the guns on our ship were fired in celebration. Three days later we left Zamboanga in the company of 9 LST's for Leyte and went from there to Batango, Luzon, P.I. We beached at Taloga Beach, Luzon, on the 30th of August and loaded service units of the 8th Army. On September 3, 1945 we left for Yokohama, Japan in the company of 16 LST's and one escort.

        On September 12th we arrived at Japan and moored our bow onto the Takashima Loading Dock, Yokohama, and unloaded our cargo. We shifted our berth to an anchorage in Yokohama Bay. The following day we beached at Yokosuka Naval Base, which was the largest naval installation in Japan. We commenced loading personnel and equipment of the 4th Marine Division. While beached at Yokasuka Naval Base, we had liberty to go ashore. Some of our crew got loaded on too much saki and stole a fire truck and drove it aboard our ship. Needless to say they caught hell and had to return it to the firehouse. While at the naval base I went on liberty into Tokyo. The city had been bombed quite heavily and many homes were destroyed. People were living in tents and crude buts. The only structures not leveled were the large concrete buildings. Our crew members came back after liberty with all sorts of souvenirs. I had gotten into a damaged Army & Navy store and brought back all sorts of medals and insignia.

        We stayed in Yokohama Bay for four days during which time I had the good fortune of being able to go aboard the Japanese battleship Nagato. This had been the flagship of Fleet Admiral Yamamoto and it was on this ship that the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor was conceived. This was the only major Japanese naval ship still afloat. Sometime later it was sunk during the atomic bomb test at Bikini Atoll. We got underway from Yokahoma Bay enroute to Guam in the Marianas Islands in the company of one other LST and an escort. On September 26 we arrived at Port Apra, Guam, where we moored to an unloading dock and unloaded our cargo. The next day we shifted our berth to Galalan Banks Jetty.

        On October 9, 1945 we got underway from Guam enroute to Leyte, P.I., and arrived there on the 25th of October, anchoring in San Pedro Bay, and we beached at Rizal, Leyte. We had liberty and went into a small village there. I was put on Shore Patrol duty and was given a club but no gun. There were still Japanese soldier hold-outs up in the hills and they would sneak down into the villages to get food. I'm glad I didn't meet any, for the best I could do would have been to throw my club at them. In the village they had a few so-called bars. These were simply huts where they sold homemade booze, which I never touched. One of these bars had a sign on the roof of the hut "The American Bar". This must have been the number one night-club, because it even had a six piece band. The drummer in the band had no regular drum sticks, only two made out of twigs. I had an extra set of sticks in the radioroom and the next day I took them to him as a gift. He insisted than I sit-in with the band and I guess they liked my playing as I became known as "Joe Krupa".

        On October 26th we completed loading cargo and got underway from Leyte enroute to Aomori, Japan, in the company of 14 LST's and one escort. Aomori is on the Northern tip of Honshu not very far from Russian territory and it was extremely cold there. When we arrived we were greeted with a blinding snowstorm. It was quite a change from the balmy South Pacific weather we had been use to. After a few weeks at Aomori, we went back to the Philippines, and over the next few months we made milk-runs between Okinawa and Japan.

        We finally got our orders to return to the good old U.S.A., and on February 2, 1946, we arrived in San Francisco, California, where we passed under the Golden Gate bridge and anchored off Alcatraz Island. Later that morning I debarked from LIST-853 along with 47 other members of our crew for the Intake Station Receiving Ship, Treasure Island, California. I was given a bunk and barracks number and a special liberty pass to go ashore whenever I wished. A week later I boarded a train for my cross-country trip home. I arrived in Philadelphia on February 14th, Valentine's Day. I took a cab from the train station to 7029 Mower Street. Before arriving there I asked the cab driver to stop at a flower shop and I bought Mom a bunch of roses. So ended my military career. I never fired at shot in anger and the only thing I ever killed was a glass of beer. For those who lived and were not seriously wounded the war had been a great experience.

        When I was discharged from the Navy I stayed in the Reserve and with the outbreak of the Korean War some years later I received a second "Greeting" from Uncle Sam. I reported to the Philadelphia Navy Yard for my physical. One of the examining doctors thought he found a problem with my heart sounds and after deliberating with a couple of other doctors they told me I could go home, but I would be called back in a few weeks for additional tests. My Reserve time was up in a few days so, being released from the Reserve, I never got a call back. I spent 12 hours as a participant in the Korean War.

        U.S.S. LIST-853, LAUNCHED NOV.,17TH, 1944, IN SERVICE DEC.11TH, 1944
        Displacement: 1,653 tons
        Hull Dimensions: 100.4 x 15.24 x 4.30 meters
        Armament: 8 40mm cannon, 2 twin and 4 single, plus many 20mm machine guns
        Electric Generator Power: 300 kW
        Machinery: 2 GM12567A diesels. 2 propellers
        Speed: 10 knots maximum
        Ships Company: Total of 70 officers and men

        Our ship was a Class 542 LST and had a ramp from the main deck to the tank deck. Later after the was LST's were given names instead of numbers and LIST-853 became Kane County.

        In 1955 LST-853 (Kane County) was transferred to South Korea and was purchased outright by that country on November 15, 1974. She is now LST 677 (Su Yong). Transcribed and formatted for HTML by Patrick Clancey


        Yolo LST 677 - History

        I needed a Hammer Drill. Sync gave me 7-10 day for Lowe's so I said YOLO. I didn't expect to be approved, but I'm not planning to app for a while so _ _ _ _. The reason I didn't think I would be approved is the other day when I apped for Macy's, I did the Home Depot prequalify first and got nothing. I know they have different underwriting, but they're both CBNA, so why not? Second reason is I got $300 at Macy's, so I figured I was tapped for them. Since I was planning to spend over $1k, I gave it a shot for the 6 mos 0%. Got approved for $500 so I maxed that out. It didn't tell me anything about 0% so I hope it's there. Won't be able to look until I get my card.

        AAoA: 6 yrs, 5 mos (I'm not doing the math for this)

        Lates: 6 over 3.5 years old

        Chargeoffs: 1 open for $1400 total

        Collections: 3 open for $1500

        Utilization w/ chargeoff: 8%

        Utilization w/o chargeoff: 0.003% (reporting as 0)

        You're growing on them. Congrats! on your approval & thanks for the DPs.

        Starting Score: (5/24/2018) -- FICO 08 EXP: 643 FICO 08 TU: 642 FICO 08 EQ: 677
        Current Score (3/12/2021): FICO 08 EXP: 748 TU: 755 EQ: 773
        2020 Goal Score: 760 across the board

        Congrats on your new Home Depot approval!

        I can't figure it out, what does YOLO stand for?

        From Wiki: " YOLO is the acronym of the phrase "you only live once". Along the same lines as the Latin "carpe diem" ("seize the day"), it is a call to live life to its fullest extent, even embracing behavior which carries inherent risk."

        Starting Score: (5/24/2018) -- FICO 08 EXP: 643 FICO 08 TU: 642 FICO 08 EQ: 677
        Current Score (3/12/2021): FICO 08 EXP: 748 TU: 755 EQ: 773
        2020 Goal Score: 760 across the board

        Thanks, never heard that acronym before and all I could think of was a county in California that is named Yolo

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        The 25 Biggest U.S. IPOs of All Time

        Initial public offerings (IPOs) are the process companies use to tap the public stock markets for capital. They usually involve early-stage businesses that are looking for fresh fuel for growth many are small opportunities, but a few have mammoth potential.

        IPOs aren’t guaranteed tickets to riches, as implosions such as Pets.com and Webvan proved. But they can produce explosive returns, and in a hurry. Through the end of September, 38 offerings had produced returns of 50% or more. One thing 2018 has lacked, however, is the mega-deal – an offering such as Facebook (FB) or Alibaba (BABA) that sets the world on fire. That should change in 2019.

        Dara Khosrowshahi, CEO of ride-hailing service Uber, says the company expects to execute an IPO next year. “Uber is a widely known brand that connects with millions of consumers and they have also received large amounts of capital from investors over the years,” says Scott Coyle, CEO of ClickIPO, an online platform that allows retail investors to purchase IPOs. No wonder then, that The Wall Street Journal reported that proposals from Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley valued the company at more than $120 billion. Given that IPOs often raise about 10% to 15% of their projected worth, that could be a $12 billion-$18 billion raise.

        Where would that rank among America’s biggest IPOs? Today we’ll look back on the 25 biggest deals in U.S. history, as measured by money raised.

        Data is as of Oct. 18, 2018. IPO deal data provided by IPOScoop.com LLC, which is an independent news and research firm for public offerings. Stocks listed in reverse order of money raised in the IPO.

        25. Citizens Financial Group

        • IPO date: Sept. 24, 2014
        • Amount raised in IPO: $3.0 billion
        • Offer price: $21.50 per share

        Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) paid $440 million for Citizens Financial Group (CFG, $34.92) in 1998 in a bid to expand into the U.S. market. But the global financial crisis of 2007-08 disrupted the company’s ambitions. The British government, which owned roughly 80% of RBS as the result of a $42 billion bailout, pushed for a Citizens spinoff.

        At the time, the bank was the 13th largest in the U.S. at $130 billion in assets, employing more than 18,000 employees across roughly 1,230 branches in 11 states, primarily in the New England, Mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions.

        The IPO was a difficult sell. Interest rates were at historically low levels that made it difficult for banks to generate robust profits, and the U.S. economy’s rebound still was viewed as sluggish. The initial price range for the offering was $23 to $25 per share, and Citizens only fetched $21.50. Shares did perk up a bit on the first day of trading, but only by about 7%.

        The U.S. economy (and interest rates) eventually perked up, however, bolstering bank stocks. Citizens’ stock has grown by 62% from its IPO price, versus about 43% gains for the Standard & Poor’s 500-stock index.

        24. China Life Insurance

        By Raysonho @ Open Grid Scheduler / Grid Engine [CC0], LFC, $10.75).

        China Life was the largest life insurance in the country when it came public in late 2003. It had a massive distribution network of exclusive agents and boasted 44 million policies in effect, good for about 45% market share. Its 2003 earnings came to about $547 million.

        Investors were eager to get a piece of the IPO because they saw it as a way to participate in the strong growth in the Chinese economy, whose GDP was expanding by 8% to 9% annually at the time.

        LFC’s shares jumped by 29% on their first day of trading, and the bullishness would continue, with the stock jumping from its offer price of $18.68 to a high of $35.58 by 2007. But the financial crisis harshly impacted shares, which plunged to as low as $11.15 by the very next year. Since then, China Life has had a difficult time getting traction thanks to competition and low interest rates. In fact, anyone that bought at the offer price is sitting on a substantial loss right now.

        23. Charter Communications

        • IPO date: Nov. 9, 1999
        • Amount raised in IPO: $3.2 billion
        • Offer price: $19.00

        Microsoft (MSFT) co-founder Paul Allen, who recently passed away, spent $2.5 billion in cash in July 1998 to acquire Charter Communications (CHTR, $318.10). He then merged the company with another of his cable holdings, Marcus Cable, which he purchased for $2.8 billion earlier in the year. His vision was that cable companies would become the center of the Internet revolution because of high-bandwidth fiber, calling it the “wired world.”

        Allen also capitalized on the booming IPO market by taking Charter Communications public in late 1999. At the time, Charter was the No. 4 cable operator in the U.S., with 6.2 million subscribers, and its offering was the largest deal in the history of cable. Shares popped by 31% on their first day of trading.

        Charter did face one massive problem: an escalating debt load that reached unsustainable levels by 2009, forcing the company to restructure under Chapter 11 bankruptcy. That allowed Charter to wipe out a slug of debt, however, and the company began wheeling and dealing in the years to come, including buying Time Warner Cable and Bright House Networks.

        Today, Charter is a nearly $84 billion company that boasts more than 26 million customers across 41 states.

        22. Sonera

        • IPO date: Oct. 13, 1999
        • Amount raised in IPO: $3.3 billion
        • Offer price: $25.60

        The Finnish government created the Finnish Telegraph Agency – the country’s telecom operator – in 1917. But in the 1990s, the government realized changes were necessary, including privatizing the telecom, which changed its name to Sonera.

        The 1999 IPO – which still left the Finnish government with roughly 58% control – was underwhelming, however. Shares generated a mere 3.5% gain on their opening day of trade.

        The key driver behind any growth in Sonera was the mobile market. Finland, as a reminder, was home of one of the world’s largest handset manufacturers at the time, Nokia (NOK), and roughly 65% of Sonera’s revenues came from mobile.

        However, in the couple years following Sonera’s offering, growth proved difficult, the company faced burgeoning costs to build a next-generation network and the dot-com bust was having an adverse impact across the technology space. All these factors led Sonera to merge with Swedish telecom operator Telia (TLSNY) in 2002.

        The move added scale, and over time, the merged entity was able to grow even more via acquisitions. Now, Telia is the leading mobile, fixed-voice and broadband company in the Nordic and Baltic regions, with a combined subscriber base of 23.1 million.

        21. Snap

        • IPO date: March 2, 2017
        • Amount raised in IPO: $3.4 billion
        • Offer price: $17.00

        Stanford students Evan Spiegel and Bobby Murphy founded Snap (SNAP, $6.81) in September 2011. The company was based around the Snapchat social media app, which stood out because of its feature that made pictures and messages disappear after a very short time.

        The app quickly caught fire, drawing in millions of (mostly younger) users. Facebook’s Mark Zuckeberg even thought so much of the opportunity that he offered $3 billion to buy the company in 2013. However, Spiegel and Murphy wanted to control their own destinies and eventually took Snap public in April 2017.

        SNAP stock soared by 44% on its first day of trading, making the co-founders billionaires overnight. Interest was high: The company, after all, was reporting a major ramp in revenues when it went public – including growth from $58.7 million in 2015 to $404.5 million in 2016. However, those massive 2016 revenues still resulted in a $514.6 million net loss.

        Snap’s life as a public company has mostly been a disappointment. The company continues to suffer nine-digit quarterly net losses, and Instagram – which Facebook purchased in 2012 – has cramped Snap’s user base, which actually declined in the second quarter of 2018. SNAP shares, meanwhile, are off 60% from their offering price of $17.

        20. China Petroleum & Chemical

        • IPO date: Oct. 19, 2000
        • Amount raised in IPO: $3.5 billion
        • Offer price: $20.65

        The year that state-owned China Petroleum & Chemical (SNP, $81.31) – commonly known as Sinopec – went public, it was China’s second largest oil firm, behind PetroChina (PTR). But the government wanted to modernize the operation and raise capital for growth, so it took the company public.

        The IPO drew heavy interest from Big Oil, with Exxon Mobil (XOM), BP Amoco – now just BP plc (BP) – and Royal Dutch Shell (RDS.B) collectively acquiring 47.5% of the offering. And shares were listed in the U.S., London and Hong Kong. But despite the institutional excitement, the first-day performance was a muted gain of just 0.48%.

        However, a cheap valuation drew bargain hunters into the stock, which would double in just a few years. And in fact, since its IPO, shares have more than quintupled, including a 13-for-10 stock split in 2015. The company continues to do well today it produced $6.2 billion in net income for the first half of 2018 – a record half-year profit for the company.

        19. Agere Systems

        • IPO date: Feb. 28, 2001
        • Amount raised in IPO: $3.6 billion
        • Offer price: $6.00

        Wall Street initially seemed interested when Lucent filed for an initial public offering of its Agere Systems unit, an optoelectronic components company. However, the initial price range of $12 to $14 per share eventually waned to an offering price of just $6. Even then, demand was soft, with shares rising a meager 2 cents per share on their first day of trading.

        For context: Dot-com mania had recently ended, which led to severe cutbacks in IT spending. Lucent also moved more than $2.5 billion of its debt to Agere, and the company even issued an earnings warning prior to its IPO.

        Looking back, it’s incredible that the deal even got done.

        However, brave investors that bought the shares early and held on were plenty rewarded. Five years later, Agere sold itself to rival LSI Logic for $22.81 per share in LSI stock – a roughly 280% return for its believers.

        18. Goldman Sachs

        • IPO date: May 4, 1999
        • Amount raised in IPO: $3.7 billion
        • Offer price: $53.00

        Investment bank Goldman Sachs (GS, $224.95) was one of the biggest beneficiaries of the roaring 1990s bull market. The company underwrote many of the era’s high-profile offerings, plus it had lucrative businesses in asset management, M&A advisory and trading.

        However, the company’s own initial attempt at an IPO in 1998 had to be withdrawn because of uncertainty stemming from the Asian financial crisis. But a year later, when the markets got back into gear, Goldman successfully executed a deal and saw its shares jump 33% on their first day of trading.

        The IPO minted quite a few fortunes Goldman Sachs’ 221 partners had an average of more than $63 million in stock holdings.

        Goldman (like many other companies) felt some pain after the dot-com bubble burst, but the firm quickly found its footing, with shares nearly quadrupling from the low $60s to the low $240s … before the financial crisis and bear market erased all those gains, plunging shares back into the $60s.

        But Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway (BRK.B) made a $5 billion bet on the company in 2008 that served as a much-needed stamp of approval. GS hit all-time highs earlier in 2018, and Buffett even added to his stake this year.

        17. Alstom

        • IPO date: June 22, 1998
        • Amount raised in IPO: $3.7 billion
        • Offer price: $34.22

        Dutch engineering firm GEC-Alsthom NV made some changes to its messaging before going public in 1998, including a new logo and a new, simpler name – Alstom (ALSMY, $4.31).

        The company was co-owned by General Electric Company (of the U.K.) and large telecom equipment maker Alcatel. Alstom’s business segments included telecom, power generation and power-transmission equipment. But perhaps the most notable part of the company was its high-speed train systems, which include Eurostar – the serve that connects London to several continental European countries via the Channel Tunnel.

        The IPO market was red-hot in the late 1990s, but Alstom’s deal received a tepid response, and shares quickly fell below their offer price. That was something of an omen: In 2003, the company almost had to file for bankruptcy. Alstom reported a $149.5 billion full-year loss that stemmed from a gas-turbine design flaw, and it was being crushed by a mountain of debt. To shore up operations, the government provided a $3 billion bailout plan that included protracted negotiations with the European Union.

        Alstom ended up selling its power business to General Electric (GE) for $14 billion in 2015. The remaining company trades on the pink sheets as ALSMY.

        One note of interest: One of the French government advisers on the GE deal was Emmanuel Macron, who would go on to become president in 2017.

        16. HCA Holdings

        • IPO date: March 10, 2011
        • Amount raised in IPO: $3.8 billion
        • Offer price: $30.00

        Hospital operator HCA Healthcare (HCA, $136.37) first went public in 1969 as Hospital Corporation of America. From there, the company focused on an aggressive M&A strategy to consolidate the industry – ultimately becoming the dominant player in the industry. By the late 1980s, management took the company private, then initiated another IPO in 1992.

        The back-and-forth dealmaking continued in 2006, when KKR & Co. (KKR) bought HCA out for $21 billion. Just five years later, KKR would flip the company back into public markets.

        There were some notable issues with the offering, which occurred with the name HCA Holdings. There was a heavy debt load of about $27 billion and uncertainty around Medicare regulations. But thanks to HCA’s relatively stable cash flows, Wall Street remained receptive to the offering.

        The company, which now spans 178 hospitals and 119 free-standing surgery centers across 20 states and the U.K., changed its name to HCA Healthcare in 2017. It’s unquestionably a winner: HCA’s shares have more than quadrupled from their $30 offer price.

        15. Travelers Property

        • IPO date: March 22, 2002
        • Amount raised in IPO: $3.9 billion
        • Offer price: $18.50
        • The Travelers Companies’ (TRV, $125.14) roots go all the way back to 1864, when it provided travel insurance for customers of the railroad – a risky method of transit in those days. The company has been a pioneer ever since, becoming the first to offer policies for automobiles, commercial airlines and space travel.

        Primerica acquired Travelers in 1993, first keeping the name, then tweaking it to The Travelers Group. It later merged with Citicorp to become Citigroup (C). However, the merger process was a rocky one, and Travelers was spun off in 2002 in what at the time was the largest insurance offering.

        The company has bulked up via acquisitions ever since its 2002 offering, including a $16.4 billion merger with The St. Paul Companies, using the St. Paul name until 2007, when it switched to The Travelers Companies – and the popular red-umbrella logo most people know it by today.

        Today, TRV is a roughly $34 billion company that’s tops in homeowners insurance writing through independent agents and top-three in personal insurance.

        14. Blackstone Group

        • IPO date: June 21, 2007
        • Amount raised in IPO: $4.1 billion
        • Offer price: $31.00

        A key to the success for the Blackstone Group (BX, $35.30), a private equity firm, has been its ability to anticipate major market cycles. So it should surprise nobody that Blackstone’s IPO was impeccably timed.

        Blackstone went public near the peak of the private-equity boom, and a year before the financial crisis took hold.

        The IPO was a big-time payday for the firm’s co-founders CEO Stephen Schwarzman snagged $677 million, while Peter Peterson pulled down a cool $1.9 billion.

        Blackstone Group has continued to be dominant in the PE world, boasting $439 billion in assets under management as of Q2 2018. Share performance has been underwhelming, gaining only about 14% from the IPO price, though investors have reaped considerable dividends since then, too.

        13. Conoco

        • IPO date: Oct. 22, 1998
        • Amount raised in IPO: $4.4 billion
        • Offer price: $23.00

        In 1875, Isaac Elder Blake founded Continental Oil and Transportation Company, which was focused on oil, kerosene and other chemical products. He sold Continental to Standard Oil in 1884, but it was spun off in 1911 as part of a monopoly breakup.

        Over the years, the company bulked up via acquisitions and eventually changed its name to Conoco. DuPont eventually acquired the company during the go-go 1980s takeover era, taking advantage of shares that were depressed because of a plunge in oil prices. But the companies weren’t a good fit, and Conoco was once again shed off, via an IPO.

        The 1998 offering raised $4.4 billion – a record at the time. When Conoco went public, it was the sixth-largest oil company in the U.S., boasting a network of 7,900 gas stations.

        Conoco eventually merged with Phillips Petroleum to form ConocoPhilips (COP, $72.59). The company today is the world’s largest independent exploration and production company (by production and proven reserves), with operations in 17 countries.

        12. CIT Group

        • IPO date: July 2, 2002
        • Amount raised in IPO: $4.6 billion
        • Offer price: $23.00

        Conglomerate Tyco bought top business lender CIT in 2001, then tried unsuccessfully to sell it back off in early 2002. So, management switched gears and spinned it off with an IPO instead.

        Wall Street wasn’t very enthusiastic about the CIT Group (CIT, $48.34) deal, in part because Tyco CEO Dennis Kozlowski had abruptly resigned a month earlier over reports he was being investigated over dodging taxes. The IPO priced below its original range, and the shares fell by 4% on their first day of trading. Still, the offering raised a hefty $4.6 billion … most of which was used to pay down Tyco’s massive debt load, which it accumulated because of an aggressive M&A spree.

        The company eventually had to file for bankruptcy in late 2009 amid the financial crisis, and shareholders were wiped out. But CIT Group remained, albeit with a massive restructuring. Today, CIT Group is a Fortune 1000 company with about $50 billion in assets.

        11. China Unicom

        • IPO date: June 21, 2000
        • Amount raised in IPO: $4.9 billion
        • Offer price: $19.99

        By summer 2000, American markets were under intense pressure from the dot-com bubble burst, but that didn’t deter Chinese telecom company China Unicom (CHU, $11.12). The company pulled off a $4.9 billion deal – at the time, the largest by a Chinese company – to list on the New York Stock Exchange, and even managed to gain 12% on its first day. (Shares also were offered in Hong Kong.)

        China Unicom, the second largest telecom company in China at the time, was a division of state-run China United Telecommunications. CHU held about 14% market share, including strong footprints in Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. Half of its revenues came from paging.

        The IPO hasn’t been a good long-term holding, however. The stock’s price has retreated 44% from their offering price of $19.99.

        10. Infineon

        • IPO date: March 13, 2000
        • Amount raised in IPO: $5.2 billion
        • Offer price: $33.92

        In 2000, German chipmaker Infineon Technologies (IFNNY, $20.78) wanted to get a piece of the dot-com action in the U.S. – and it worked. The deal was the second-biggest for a German company – second only to Deutsche Telekom (DTEGY) – and shares more than doubled, to $70 per share from a $33.92 offering price.

        Infineon was a division of old-line industrial operator Siemens (SI) and was ranked No. 10 in the world among chipmakers, in terms of total sales. Siemens, by the way, had enjoyed dealmaking success a year earlier with an IPO of its Epcos division.

        Infineon Technologies delisted from the New York Stock Exchange in 2007, but still trades on the Frankfurt Exchange, as well as over-the-counter in the U.S. It has a strong footprint in key markets such as self-driving vehicles and the Internet of Things. Its power and smart card ICs are No. 1 in market share, and the company is No. 2 in automotive semiconductor market share.

        9. United Parcel Service

        • IPO date: Nov. 10, 1999
        • Amount raised in IPO: $5.5 billion
        • Offer price: $50.00

        In 1907, James Casey created American Messenger Company, which offered parcel and special-mail service primarily by foot and bicycle. However, it upgraded its “fleet” with its first Ford Model T in 1913, and six years later, it took on the name we know it by now: United Parcel Service (UPS, $114.73).

        UPS built a massive business without much need for outside capital. In fact, UPS didn’t go public until 1999 – compare that to rival FedEx (FDX), which was founded in 1971 and went public in 1978.

        Demand for the UPS IPO was so robust that the deal had to be delayed by 45 minutes. Shares ended their first day of trading up $36%. And unlike many offerings, employees collected a nice windfall – they collectively owned about a third of the company’s shares.

        The actual performance of UPS has been a little above-average, with gains of about 130% from its listing price versus 102% for the S&P 500.

        8. Telecom Eireann

        Courtesy William Murphy via Flickr

        • IPO date: July 8, 1999
        • Amount raised in IPO: $5.5 billion
        • Offer price: $15.99
        • Telecom Eireann, the largest telecom company in Ireland, wasn’t well-known in the U.S. but still produced a nice offering in New York, as well as London and Dublin. Institutional demand for the offering was about 12 times the number of shares offered, and the stock rose more than 20% on its debut.

        Telecom Eireann was owned by the Irish government, which allocated a hefty 55% of the stock to individual investors. More than 500,000 people, or over 20% of Ireland’s adult population– 60% of whom were first-time investors – joined in.

        The company, which was renamed Eircom, still was relatively small among the world’s telecom giants at the time, with 1.5 million phone lines and 645,000 mobile customers.

        The company split into two divisions in 2000 – a mobile business and a fixed-line business. The mobile division sold out a year later to Vodafone (VOD) and a consortium of buyers.

        7. Kraft Foods

        • IPO date: June 13, 2001
        • Amount raised in IPO: $8.7 billion
        • Offer price: $31.00

        Philip Morris International (PM), which had purchased Nabisco in 2000, spun off Kraft Foods in 2001, using much of the offering’s proceeds to pay down debt from the acquisition.

        Kraft Foods at the time had a nice portfolio of brands, including Kraft Macaroni & Cheese, Maxwell House, Philadelphia Cream Cheese, Oreo cookies and Oscar Mayer. It also had an interesting leadership structures that included co-CEOs, and Philip Morris’ CEO was the chairman.

        Nonetheless, the IPO spurred little investor interest, with shares rising just 1% on their first day of trading.

        In 2012, Kraft announced it would split off its North American grocery business as Kraft Foods Group, with the remaining snack-foods company to be renamed Mondelez International (MDLZ). Three years later, Kraft Foods Group merged with Heinz to become Kraft Heinz (KHC, $55.54) in a deal facilitated by Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway and global investment firm 3G Capital.

        6. AT&T Wireless Group

        • IPO date: April 27, 2000
        • Amount raised in IPO: $10.6 billion
        • Offer price: $29.50

        The AT&T Wireless IPO came at the peak of the dot-com boom, as parent company AT&T wanted to capitalize on the frenzy. The deal was done by issuing “tracking stock.” This tracking stock essentially trades based on the performance of a company’s division, but doesn’t require the company to yield any control of the unit or spin off the division’s actual operations.

        AT&T Wireless was growing at a fast pace, as were other mobile companies including Sprint (S) and Nextel. Revenues spiked by 41% year-over-year to $7.6 billion in 1999 and boasted 12 million subscribers. So no one was surprised when AT&T raised a then-record $10.6 billion, a year after UPS’ $5.5 billion raise.

        AT&T Wireless eventually sold out to Cingular Wireless – itself a joint venture between SBC Communications and BellSouth, which were broken off from the original AT&T – in 2004 for $41 billion. SBC eventually took on the AT&T brand as AT&T Inc. (T, $32.50).

        5. General Motors

        • IPO date: Nov. 18, 2010
        • Amount raised in IPO: $15.8 billion
        • Offer price: $33.00
        • General Motors (GM, $31.08) has a rich history dating back to 1908, spanning iconic brands (current and defunct) such as Chevrolet, Cadillac, GMC, Pontiac, Hummer, Saturn and Opel.

        However, it was not immune to the financial crisis, and it in fact succumbed in June 2009, when it filed for bankruptcy. This included a $50 billion bailout from the federal government that sparked the nickname “Government Motors.”

        But GM was able to get its house in order. The company worked aggressively to cut costs, streamline operations, revamp the lineup and invest more in the Chinese market. The result? General Motors was able to launch a successful IPO a couple years later. It reduced its obligations to the U.S. government by $22 billion (and fully paid off the government by 2015), and it made a $4.7 billion profit in 2011 – its first positive annual earnings since 2004.

        The stock, on a price basis, is actually in the red since its IPO. But that has created an income opportunity for new money, with shares yielding 4.9% as of this writing.

        4. Facebook

        • IPO date: May 18, 2012
        • Amount raised in IPO: $16.0 billion
        • Offer price: $38.00

        There was plenty of drama in the lead-up to the Facebook (FB, $154.92) IPO. Facebook’s prospectus noted that user-base growth likely would slow. The mobile side of the business was lagging. And CEO Mark Zuckerberg didn’t win any friends when he wore a hoodie to his investor presentation, leading many to believe he had a lackadaisical attitude toward the process.

        The day-of was no better. Facebook’s deal pricing was delayed because of a Nasdaq glitch that resulted in roughly $500 million in losses across numerous Facebook investors.

        The situation got worse in the next few months, as Facebook plunged below $20 per share.

        Zuckeberg didn’t flinch. He swiftly focused on investing in mobile, including upgrading the original Facebook app and also making deals for image-based social media company Instagram and messaging service WhatsApp. Facebook more than recovered, hitting an all-time high above $218 earlier this year – a roughly 475% return on the original price.

        The social media giant is facing new challenges, including a slowdown of its growth ramp, privacy issues and cybersecurity weaknesses. But it’s still one of the 10 largest companies trading on U.S. markets – not bad for a company that’s only been around since 2004.

        3. Enel SpA

        • IPO date: Nov. 2, 1999
        • Amount raised in IPO: $16.5 billion
        • Offer price: $45.23

        Italian utility company Enel SpA (ENLAY, $4.89) had a few things weigh on its IPO – namely, it was a utility (which doesn’t tend to gin up excitement), and it was a foreign operation, which also tends to hurt interest.

        Wall Street’s reception was an unsurprising yawn. Yes, Enel became the largest publicly traded utility in the world, but the company’s shares barely budged on their first day of trading, crawling ahead by just 0.33%.

        Another interesting wrinkle: Enel was state-owned. The Italian government actually used the deal to bolster its treasury, as part of a wide-scale policy of privatization and attempting to adopt the euro.

        But while the Enel IPO was the second-largest deal raise in U.S. market history, the stock never got much traction. By 2007, management chose to delist from the NYSE because of low trading volumes.

        2. Visa

        • IPO date: March 18, 2008
        • Amount raised in IPO: $17.9 billion
        • Offer price: $44.00

        On March 16, JPMorgan Chase (JPM) agreed to buy Bear Stearns in March 2008 for a mere $2 per share – a 93% discount to the prior close (and a price that eventually would be moved up to $10 per share) – in a deal that involved a $30 billion loan from the Federal Reserve. It sent shockwaves across Wall Street, as investors started to worry about America’s largest financial institutions.

        This was the environment Visa (V, $139.29) had to contend with when, a couple days later, it pulled off its IPO.

        This was a gutsy move by management, who wanted to make a statement that Visa was in solid financial condition. Visa operated the world’s largest payments system and was owned by about 13,000 financial institutions. At the time, it had about 1.5 billion cards in use, compared to 916 million for rival MasterCard (MA). And Wall Street cheered the offering, driving V shares up 28% on their opening day.

        Anyone willing to invest in Visa during this time is doing cartwheels today. Visa’s stock has jumped by roughly 1,160% from the offer price, including a 4-for-1 split in 2015.

        1. Alibaba

        • IPO date: Sept. 19, 2014
        • Amount raised in IPO: $21.8 billion
        • Offer price: $68.00

        Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba (BABA, $142.02) launched in April 1999 with 18 founders including charismatic leader Jack Ma. Ma, a former English teacher, had little business or technology experience, but he did have a compelling vision: to create a massive marketplace where Chinese businesses could sell their wares in China as well as global markets.

        Alibaba’s early days were challenging – funding was difficult to come by as tech companies were folding left and right in the dot-com bubble bust – the company still got traction and eventually built a powerful ecosystem. By the time it launched its 2014 IPO, the company was earning roughly $3.8 billion in annual net income, from 279 million active buyers.


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