15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 36 L/23

15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 36 L/23


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15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 36 L/23

The 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 36 L/23 was a lightweight howitzer designed to towed by a single team of horses.

The existing 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 18 was a good weapon for the 1930s, but it was very heavy, and had to be split into two loads to be towed by horses. In 1935 Krupp and Rheinmetall were both asked to produce a design for a lighter howitzer that could fire the same 149mm shells as the sFH 18, but that would be light enough to be towed by a single team of horses.

The Rheinmetal design won the contest. It was similar in overall layout to the sFH 18, with the recuperator above the barrel and barrel brake below, with two hydro-pneumatic equilibrators on the sides and a split trail carriage, but a great deal of effort went into lightening it. The barrel was 99cm shorter and the carriage and wheels were mainly made from ligt metals. As a result it only weighed 3,280kg in the firing position (down from 5,512kg) and 3,500kg when being transported (down from 6,304kg). The extra weight when being transported was made up of a two wheel bogey trailer that went under the ends of the trails and lifted the gun up so the barrel was horizontal. As a result it could be towed by a single team of horses.

Because the sFH 36 was quite lightly built, it couldn’t take as much propellant as the sFH 18, reducing its range. It was given a muzzle break to absorb some of the forces, partly compensating for the lighter construction. The shorter barrel also had an impact, and the sFH 36 had a maximum range of around 12,500m, down by 825m compared to the sFH 18.

Small scale production of the sFH 36 began in 1939, but had to stop in 1942 when the supply of the light metal alloys it used was running short, with priority going to the aircraft industry.

Name

15 sFH 36

Calibre

149.1mm

Barrel Length

3555mm (L/23.7)

Weight for transport

3,500kg

Weight in action

3,280kg

Elevation

-1 to +43 degrees

Traverse

56 degrees

Shell Weight

43.5kh

Muzzle Velocity

485m/ sec

Maximum Range

12,500m

Rate of Fire

4 rounds/ min


8cm schwere Granatwerfer 34 (GrW 34)

The 8-cm Granatwerfer 34 (GrW 34) - Heavy Grenade-Launcher Model 1934 - was a German Army favorite throughout the whole course of World War 2. Despite the official designation classification, she was often classified as a medium mortar and was produced from 1934 into 1945. The system performed highly-effectively (particularly in the hands of a trained mortar team) and was respected by Allied troops for her excellent rate-of-fire and high accuracy at distance. The weapon proved so critical to German Army operations that it was fielded wherever her troops were fighting. Her production in number and her general battlefield usefulness ensured her place in World War 2 lore.

Rheinmetall-Borsig AG was charged with the design and development of this mortar system. The protracted design period lasted from 1922 to 1933, a period which saw German rearmament in spite of the restrictive powers of the Treaty of Versailles following World War 1. The mortar system was nothing more than a revision of the influential French Brandt mle 27/31 81.4mm system of 1927, this time with a German branding. Crews were trained in her basic functions but soon - moreso through operational experience - developed speedy response times in her deployment, aiming and firing - making themselves one of the more feared adversaries of the war. German mortar crews represented some of the finest masters of their craft in the entire conflict. To keep up with demand, several manufacturing firms were enlisted to lend a hand in wartime production of the GrW 34 while still more were used for production of the all-important projectiles needed to make the GrW 34 a successful weapon system.

Despite her dedicated pages in World War history, the GrW 34 was anything but a unique and wholly special design, passing on much of the kudos to her excellently trained crews. Her design was highly conventional for its time - her arrangement consisted of nothing more than the standard base plate, a bipod (with aiming optics and handwheels) connected to the firing tube and the firing tube itself. The system could break down into these three major components for ease of travel. The firing tube itself was of a smoothbore internal design. Two barrel types existed in a steel and alloy form, differentiated by the systems overall weight gains as 136.6lbs and 125.6lbs respectively. Barrel length measured in at 45 inches (1,143MM). The base projectiles were 7.71lbs in weight and activated via percussion fuses. Range could be slightly extended through use of additional powder charges. The base plate was rectangular in shape and fitted to the bottom of the firing tube. There was a rounded handle for carrying the individual component from location to location. The bipod fitted most of the critical aiming functions of the GrW 34. There was a traversing handwheel as well as a cross-leveling handwheel for general aiming while a panoramic sight afforded for finer adjustments against a target area. Elevation fell within a range of 45- to 90-degrees while traversing was limited from 10- to 23-degrees. Muzzle velocity was listed at 571 feet per second and the weapon was ranged out to 2,624 yards (2,400 meters).

The GrW 34 was cleared to fire the conventional High-Explosive (HE) and smoke projectiles but her true arsenal was more expansive. She could fire illuminating rounds for night-time work as well as any captured enemy ammunition fitting her caliber (at the loss of some performance however). There was an interesting bouncing projectile known by the designation of "8-cm Wurfgranate 39" that utilized a tiny rocket motor to "bounce" itself off of the ground of a target area, exploding in mid-air and spewing her dangerous fragmentation payload about the surrounding area. These, however, proved too costly to produce in any number and were therefore something of a rarity.

The basic pear-shaped projectiles (stabilized by multiple small fins at the rear of each shell) were dropped from the muzzle-end of the firing tube straight down the awaiting barrel. They then struck the awaiting firing pin at the base of the firing tube, subsequently igniting the propellant charge and sending the projectile on its flight trajectory based on the predetermined path through careful aiming. A trained crew of three could let off between 15- to 25-rounds per minute. One crewmember managed the ammunition supply while another fine-tuned the aiming adjustments. The third crewmember served as an assistant and could also stabilize the bipod by hand when the system was fired for even more steadiness. All three helped to transport the three components of the GrW 34 system.

The base Granatwerfer 34 was spawned into a few published variants. These included the Granatwerfer 34/1, a modified Granatwerfer 34 for use on self-propelled vehicles such as the SdKfz 250/7 series halftrack, and the kurzer 8-cm Granatwerfer 42 (or "Stummelwerfer"), essentially a lightened form of the base model (with half the range) sporting a shortened barrel system for use by airborne personnel. The Stummelwerfer saw service beginning in 1942 but was rarely in use with her intended airborne forces. Instead, the system went on to replace the complex and expensive 5-cm lwGrW 36 light mortar series keeping all of her GrW 34 benefits minus the excellent range.

Other than the German Army, the other key operator of the Granatwerfer 34 system was ally Bulgaria.


Re: Turkish Artillery

Post by Osman Levent » 12 Apr 2013, 13:43

Re: Turkish Artillery

Post by Idomeneas » 12 Apr 2013, 22:03

Hey,
Before the battles of December, according to the Directorate of History of the Greek Army, the greek intelligence regarding the kemalist forces in the western front, was not accurate. According to the intelligence report of November there were not available accurate data for the strength and equipment of each enemy division (one of the reasons that this reconnaisance attempt was decided). Therefore there were only available information about 64 artillery pieces:
25 in GHQ and various units at Eski-Sehir -23 stored in a mosque-,
4 pieces 12th Army Corps at Afion Karahisar,
2 pieces 57th Infantry Division at Denizli,
6 pieces 41st Infantry Division at Ahat Kioi,
7 pieces 23rd Infantry Division at Banaz,
6 pieces 24th Infantry Division at Biletzik,
3 pieces 9th Infantry Division at Simav Demirtzik,
2 pieces Blue Battalion at Yeni Sehir,
9 pieces by irregular forces.
No data were available for any artillery regarding 14th, 20th Army Corps, 1st, 4th, 61st, 56th, 11th Infantry Divisions and the 165th Infantry Regiment (or they actually didn't have any?).
Total forces around 55.600 men, 64 artillery pieces, 115 machine guns and 6 airplanes.
It was after the battles that POWs provided the information according to the Greek Army Officail History that 4th, 11th, 24th, 1 regiment from the 1st Infantry Division and 1 cavalry regiment were supported by 12x75mm, 4x105mm and 1x155(!)mm artillery pieces (no models were specified).
Can our Turkish friends clarify the situation according to official turkish sources?

Re: Turkish Artillery

Post by belisarius21 » 13 Apr 2013, 00:01

Thank you very much for your answer. It is very much appreciated.

With regard to the clarification you asked, the problem arose from the use of the Julian Calendar ("Old Calendar") that is often used in Greece for the history of that period (sometimes with a double reference, like: 14Dec/6 Jan). You use the "New" (Gregorian) Calendar. So, there is no problem with the time frame. We are referring to the same time, place and units.

(However, I was somewhat confused with your placing of the 24th Division. If I understand what you have written, you place the division very far to the south, close to Banaz, on 2/1/21 (NC). Is this correct? The impression here is that at the time, it was in the north – it is placed on Bilecik on 6/1/21. Is this inaccurate? When did the 24th Div join the battle?)

In any case, my main interest at this point lies in the artillery complements of the aforementioned divisions. I also have the numbers Idomeneas cites from the official Greek Army History, but i am not convinced they are accurate.

Reconstructing the artillery strength of the turkish divisions as they were reconstituted and/or being transformed is a serious problem in assessing the battles. Obviously the divisions started off with very weak complements and were gradually strongly reinforced.

Any further information would be appreciated.

(PS: Inadvertently, I referred to the whereabouts of the 4th Division instead of the 24th, which troubled me. I edited the original post.)

Re: Turkish Artillery

Post by Osman Levent » 13 Apr 2013, 15:47

Belisarius,
After some tribulation on everyone's part, I believe we have finally resolved to establish a common ground for what has been described as the "Offensive Reconnaissance of December" by Greek Military Historians and as the "First Battle of İn Ön'ü" in the War Annals of the Turkish General Staff. Apparently the reference to December by the Greek side actually pointed to the operations which started by the first week of January 1921 and were to extend to the very end of the month. I will try to summon the deployment of Turkish units rushed to the region when the said "Reconnaissance" of Greek Forces was to commence on the 6th Day of January at 07.00 Hours.

On the 5th of January, the positions of the Turkish Infantry Divisions you are interested in are as follows
1) The 4th Inf. Div. in Ankara. This Div. was to arrive at İn Ön'ü Station on the 8th and was immediately deployed at Kovalca village approx. 5 miles to the southeast of Böz Üyük. One Heavy Howitzer Battery was positioned at the Station.

2) The 11th Inf. Div. at Yunuslar village approx. 25 miles to the northwest of Banaz. This Div. was to arrive at İn Ön'ü Station on the 9th and was immediately deployed at nearby Poyra village. One Field Artillery Company was positioned at Ak Pınar village.

3) The 24th Inf. Div. at Baş Köy / Küplü village approx. 3 miles to the south of Bilecik. This Div. was to be ordered on the 8th to deploy at Teke village approx. 8 miles to the east of Boz Üyük and were to take their new positions on the 9th. One Howitzer Battery was positioned in the village whilst another Howitzer Battery was positioned at Oluklu village approx. 5 miles to the east.

At the time of these operations a Turkish Artillery Company usually carried 6 pieces whereas a Battery included only 3.

Apart from these Artillery formations the only other unit known to have operated in the region is a Field Artillery Battery brought in to the theater of war by the 3rd Cavalry Division which had arrived on the 11th of the month from Ankara.

Best Regards, Osman Levend

Re: Turkish Artillery

Post by belisarius21 » 14 Apr 2013, 12:22

Thank you for your answer. It is important for our better understanding of the engagement.

If I may, let me come back to my original question:

Is there any clue as to the actual types and numbers of the artillery pieces used by the Turkish forces in the engagement?
I cited the Greek Official Military History (GOMH) which estimates a total of 17 guns: 12 75mm Skodas, 4 105mm Skodas and 1 150mm Skoda pieces). But this is based on POW evidence, and in any case, there is a tendency in GOMF to call almost all guns as Skodas (of any of the three types :75mm, 105mm, 150mm), which is dubious.

If I count correctly, you give a total number of 15 artillery pieces (3+6+6), but I understand that this is based on the nominal strength of the artillery complements of the Turkish divisions. Is there any way to determine the actual numbers and types of guns in the engagement? Is there any such evidence either in the Turkish Official Military History (of the General Staff, I believe) or in memoirs of participating officers?

By the way, I was somewhat confused by your use of artillery companies and batteries. Could that actually be artillery battalions and batteries, which would be more consistent with standard terminology? I would think that, even understrength, the division's artillery complement would be an Artillery Battalion, especially given the highly concentrated artillery command structure that the Turkish Army adopted as a result of its Balkan Wars experience.

Any contribution on these, admittedly esoteric questions, will be appreciated.

(PS: In Greek historiography, military and other, the operation is called the "December Offensive Reconnaissance" because the New Calendar was not adopted until 1923 in Greece. The operation having been controversial in Greece from the very beginning, it had already acquired a name which was not easy to change later on. Obviously, it is the operation known as the "First Battle of Inonu" in Turkish historiography.)

Re: Turkish Artillery

Post by Osman Levent » 14 Apr 2013, 20:02

Re: Turkish Artillery

Post by Osman Levent » 14 Apr 2013, 20:37

Re: Turkish Artillery

Post by nuyt » 15 Apr 2013, 11:49

Re: Turkish Artillery

Post by belisarius21 » 17 Apr 2013, 04:37

I apologize for the belated reply.

Thank you for your answers. Even though they do not contain numbers of types, which are, I perfectly understand, an extremely demanding request, they are still very enlightening and helpful.

May I further tax your patience with one more relevant question? Artillery being the critical factor in engagements of the era, I am trying to get as complete a picture of this combat arm as possible. Only let me change my focus this time, just in case this proves any easier.

I am particularly interested in the heavy artillery of the war, and in particular the 15cm guns of the Ottoman - and, later on, Turkish - Army.

I understand that at the beginning of the war, Turkey had 12 15cm Skodas and an unspecified quantity of 15cm schwere Feldhaubitze 13 L/14, which I cannot identify (Krupps?). In the summer of 1920 the Greek Army captured in depots in Balikesir a total of 36 skodas(?), both 10,5s and 15s, previously confiscated by the Allies and with their breech blocks removed. The 15cms had their breech blocks manufactured in Greece later on, but where transferred to Thrace and don't seem to have been used in Asia Minor at all.

So, my question would be: any knowledge - even fragmentary - of the situation with the turkish heavy artillery during the conflict? How many pieces of what type (still talking about 15cms) at the beginning and during the conflict?

Again, I am thankful for all the valuable information provided to me. It is much appreciated.

(Edit: Let me suggest another possible (easy) way to deduce more about the state of Turkish artillery during the conflict. Due to the Mudros Armistice conditions, the bulk the larger part of the Turkish guns was confiscated by the Allies and kept in depots all over Asia Minor, lightly guarded. Later on, once the conflict erupted openly, Greek and Turkish forces layed hands on any of them they could. Since most of them had their breech blocks removed by the british, both opponents had to manufacture breech blocks in order to render the guns operational.

I suspect that this technical accomplishment could be widely referred to in Turkish sources, and it would be some further indication as to what became operational from this source. Have you ever come across this kind of reference?)


Captured Foreign Artillery?

Post by Alternative Scenario » 21 Jun 2003, 02:09

Guderian wrote in Panzer Leader that in early 1944 while preparing the eastern German border defenses against the advancing Red Army discovered that "thousands of (captured) guns and other heavy equipment stored in ordnance depots". He tried to acquire the ones of more than 50mm calibre and with more than 50 rounds of ammunition!

Two questions
1) Anyone have any details of the types, numbers and county of origin
2) If these numbers are correct would these weapons not have been better employed strengthening the Atlantic Wall in 1943-44 or the Gustav/Gothic Lines in Italy?

Post by Kugelblitz » 21 Jun 2003, 22:30

I make a list of them, I also include the ones that are under the 50mm caliber. Many was used in the Atlantic wall (just 2 as far I know), they wasn`t used a lot mainly due of the lack of ammo. The Italians ones was used on that countrie, Germans apreciated those guns. In the list I put the original name and the german designation.

47mm SA 1937/1939 = Pak(f) 4,7cm / Pak 183(f) 4,7cm used on SP guns like the 4,7cm Pak(f) auf Infantrie PzKpfw MK(e) based on the Matilda II

Canon de 75 1897 = FK 97(f), many converted in the AT guns Pak97/38 and Pak 97/40

Canon de 75 model 1917/34 (AA) = Flak M.17/34(f) 7,5cm

Canon de 75 model 1930 (AA) = Flak M.30(f) 7,5cm

Canon de 75 model 1933 (AA) = Flak M.33(f) 7,5cm

Canon de 105 C = 10,5cm leichte Feldhaubitze 324(f)

Canon de 155 C = 15,5cm sFH 414(f) *1

Canon de 155 GPF = 15,5cm Kanone 418(f)

Cannone da 75/27 Modello 11 = 7,5cm Feldkanone 244(i)

Cannone da 149/40 Modello 35 = 15cm Kanone 408(i)

Cannone da 149/19 Modello 41 = 15cm schwere Feldhaubitze 404 (i)

Obice da 210/22 Modello 35 = 21cm Haubitze 520 (i)

QF 3in AA = Flak Vickers (e) 7,5cm

QF 25-PDR = 8,76cm Feldkanone 280(e)

QF 3,7in AA = 9,4cm Flak Vickers M.39(e), the Germans made 100000 cartdriges for them in early 1943.

6in Gun MK XIX = the German scrapped the captured one for resources.

6in Howitzer MK I = 15,2cm sFH 412 (e) *2

45mm Model 32/37/42 = Pak 184(r) / Pak 184/1(r) / Pak 184/6(r) 4,5cm

76,2mm AA Model 31/38 = Flak M.31(r) / M.38(r) 7,62cm due of the lack of original ammo, they was rebarreled to 88mm then the designation was updated to 7,62/8,8 cm

76,2mm Infantry Gun 1927 = Infantrie Kanone-Haubitze 290(r) 7,62cm

76,2mm Field Gun 1941 = Feldkanone 288/1(r) 7,62cm

76,2mm Field Gun 1942 = Feldkanone 288(r) 7,62cm

85mm AA Gun = 8,5cm M.39(r), then rebarreled and changed to 8,5/8,8cm M.39(r)

122mm Field Gun A-19/122-31 = 12,2 cm Kanone 390/2(r) / 390/1(r), both used on the Atlantic Wall.

152mm Field Gun BR-2 = 15,2 cm Kanone 440(r)

152mm Howitzer ML-20 = 15,2cm Kanonehaubitze 433/1(r) *3 used on coastal batteries.

203mm Howitzer BR-4 = From 20,3cm Haubitze 503(r) to 503/5(r), six versions that differ from the gun caliber and carriage all used in the eastern front against its original users.

*1, The canon was used in other countries and when the german captured them they give to it a different designation (I put the french one again):

Belgium: Obusier 155 = 15,5cm schwere Feldhaubitze 413(b)
France: C 17 S = 15,5cm sFH 414(f)
Italy: Obice da 155/14 PB = 15,5cm sFH 414(i)
Poland: 155mm Haubica wz 1917 = 15,5cm sFH17(p)
Russia: 152-17S (rebarreled) = 15,2cm sFH 449(r)

*2 Same as above:

Belgium: 6in Howitzer = 15,2cm sFH 410(b)
Holand: 6in Howitzer = 15,2cm sFH 407(h)
Italy: Obice da 152/13 = 15,2cm sFH 412(i)

*3 This designation is for the ML-20S I think, so the ML-20 shall be 15,2cm Kanonehaubitze 433(r)

Post by Alternative Scenario » 22 Jun 2003, 01:35

Fantastic list but it makes me even more curious as to why the Germans held on to so many guns in 1944?

One policy they had regarding armour (from 1943 onwards) was not to deploy German built equipment in secondary theaters, instead use captured armour as far as possible!

Why not use all these weapons in key static sectors where there was a possibility of them being more useful?

Post by Christoph Awender » 22 Jun 2003, 01:48

The number of captured guns was not a problem. They had enough. But there were not enough units, men and ammo to use them.

Post by Erik E » 22 Jun 2003, 01:52

This is from Marcus` factbook, and shows how many guns they actually had. I guess the answer to your question could be lack of troops to man them!

2.5 cm PAK 112 (f) (ex-french M-34, the satandard AT gun of the French Army at the outbreak of the war)
2.5 cm PAK 113 (f) (ex-french M-37 Buil by Puteaux and lighter than the M-34, but with similar performance)
3.7 cm PAK 153 (h) (ex-dutch 37mm Rheinmetall, buyed to Germany)
3.7 cm PAK 158 (r) (ex russian 37 mm M 30, similar to the PAK 36, buyed to Germany)
3.7 cm PAK 162 (i) (ex-italian Canone contracarro da 37/45, PAK 36 buyed to Germany)
3.7 cm PAK 37 (t) (ex-czech M-37, issued to German troops after seizure of Czechoslovaquia)
3.7 cm PAK 156(j) (ex-jugoslavian M-37 Skoda)
3.7 cm PAK 36 (p) (ex-polish M-36, built by Bofors, and used also by the Finns and the British as Ordnance QF, 37 mm Mk I)
3.7 cm PAK 157 (d) (ex-danish M-34 Bofors, same gun as above)
3.7 cm PAK 164 (d) (ex-danish M-35 Madsen)
4.0 cm PAK 154 (b) (ex british 2 pounders used by the Belgian Army)
4.0 cm PAK 192 (e) (ex-british QF2 on carriage 2pr)
4.5 cm PAK 184 (r) (ex-russian M-30, a scaled up version of the PAK 36 )
4.5 cm PAK 184/1 (r) (ex-russian M-32, development of the M-30)
4.5 cm PAK 184/6 (r) (ex-russian M-36, the M-38 tank gun on makeshift carriage)
4.7 cm PAK 36 (t) (ex-czech M-36, very appreciated by German troops)
4.7 cm PAK 177 (i) (ex-italian M-35 Böhler)
4.7 cm PAK 179 (j) (ex jugoslavian M-36 Skoda)
4.7 cm PAK 181 (f) (ex french M-37,a very effective AT gun, also known as SA 37 APX)
4.7 cm PAK 183(f) (ex french M-39, development of the M-37)
4.7 cm PAK 185 (b) (ex-belgian Con de 47 antichars SA-FRC)
4.7 cm PAK 188 (h) (ex dutch Kanon van 47)
4.7 cm PAK 196 (r) (ex-russian 47 mm PTP Böhler)
5.7 cm PAK 208 (ex-russian M-41/ZIS-2)
7.5 cm PAK 97/38 (french 7.5 cm in PAK 38 carriage, used only until arrival of the PAK 40)
7.5 cm PAK 97/40 (french 7.5 cm in PAK 40 carriage)
7.62 cm PAK 36 (r) (ex-russian M-36)
7.62 cm PAK 39 (r) (ex-russian M-39 also called FeldKanone 297)
7.62 cm PAK 54 (r) (ex-russian, russian designation unknown)
9.5 cm Küstenkanone (f) (Ex-french canon de cote de 95 M 93) (Only used in France)
12.2 cm Küstenkanone 393 (r) (ex-russian coastal gun M ?)
15.2 cm Küstenkanone 456 (r) (ex-russian coastal gun M 04)
20.3 cm Küstenkanone L/45 (r) (old russian coastal guns from Sevastopol )
24.0 cm Schnellfeuerkanone C/97 (h) in Drehschiesslafette C/97 (h) (Naval guns from two Dutch coastal defence ships)
25.4 cm Küstenkanone 572 (r) (ex-russian coastal gun M 10)
27.0 cm Küstenmörser 585 (f) (ex-french coastal howitzer M 89)
30.5 cm Küstenkanone 626 (r) (ex-russian gun) (Captured in Narvik, en route from France to Finland, and restored by Krupp)
30.5 cm Haubitze modell 16 (Bofors) (Ex Norwegian?) (4 emplaced in Narvik)
34.0 cm Küstenkanone Modell 12 (f) (ex-french coastal gun M 12)

The following guns are of Norwegian origin and only used in Norway:
10.0 cm SKL40 MII Bofors (Removed from Norwegian ship "Æger") (German name: 10.0cm SKL 40(n))
10.0 cm L/40 MI (from the Norwegian ship Fröya)
12.0 cm L/40 Schneider
12.0 cm L/44 Armstrong (from the N. ships Tordenskiold & Harald Haarfagre)
15.0 cm L50 Bofors. German name:15.0 cm SKL 50(n)
15.0 cm L47,5 Armstrong. German name:15.0 cm SKL 47,5(n)
21.0 cm L45 St-Chamond. German name:21.0 cm SKL 45(n)
24.0 cm St-Chamond. German name:24.0 cm HL/12,7(n)
28.0 cm L40 Krupp (the guns which sunk Blücher) (German name: 28.0 cm SKL 40)
7.5 cm FK 01 (n) (ex-norwegian M-01 Erhardt)
7.5 cm FK 02/26 (p) (ex polish vz 26, old russian M-00, relined)
7.5 cm FK 17 (t) (ex-czech M-28 Skoda)
7.5 cm FK 97 (p) (ex-polish M-97)
7.5 cm FK 231 (f) (ex-french M-97)
7.5 cm FK 232 (f) (ex french M-97, modified with split trail carriage)
7.5 cm FK 234 (b) (ex-belgian FK-16nA relined to 7.5)
7.5 cm FK 235 (b) (ex-belgian M-05 TR, Krupp design of 1905)
7.5 cm FK 236 (b) (ex-belgian FK-16 nA, relined to 7.5)
7.5 cm FK 237 (i) (ex-italian licence built Krupp M-06)
7.5 cm FK 243 (h) (ex-dutch M-02/04, licence built Krupp M-03)
7.5 cm FK 244 (i) (ex-italian M-11 Deport)
7.5 cm FK 245 (i) (ex-italian M-12, modified M-06)
7.5 cm FK 246 (n) (ex-norwegian M-01 Erhardt)
7.5 cm FK 247 (n) (ex-norwegian M-?)
7.5 cm FK 248 (i) (ex-italian M-37 Ansaldo)
7.5 cm FK 249 (j) (ex-jugoslavian M-12 Skoda)
7.5 cm lFH 255 (i) (ex-italian M-35)

7.62 cm FK 288 (r) (ex–russian M-42/ZIS-3)
7.62 cm FK 288/1 (r) (ex-russian M-41)
7.62 cm FK 290/1 (r) (ex russian M-02/06)
7.62 cm FK 295/1 (r) (ex-russian M-02/30, L/30)
7.62 cm FK 295/2 (r) (ex-russian M-02/30, L/40)
7.62 cm FK 296 (r) (ex-russian M-36, used also as PAK-36 and FK-36)
7.62 cm FK 297 (r) (ex-russian M-39, used also as PAK-39 and FK-39)
7.62 cm FK 305 (r) (ex-russian M-43)
7.62 cm FK 310 (r) (ex-russian M-02/30)

7.65 cm FK 05/08 (ö) (ex-austrian M-05/08 Skoda)
7.65 cm FK 17 (ö) and (t) (ex-austrian and ex-czech M-17 Skoda)
7.65 cm FK 18 (ö) (ex-austrian M-18 Skoda)
7.65 cm FK 300 (j) (ex-jugoslavian M-05/08 Skoda)
7.65 cm FK 303 (j) (ex-jugoslavian M-17 Skoda)
7.65 cm FK 304 (j) (ex-jugoslavian M-28 Skoda)

8.0 cm FK 18/17 (t) (ex-czech M-?)
8.0 cm FK 30 (t) (ex-czech M-30)

8.38 cm FK 271 (e) (ex-british QF 18 pr Mk I-II on carriageMk II PA)
8.38 cm FK 272 (e) (ex-british QF 18 pr Mk I-II on carriage ?)
8.38 cm FK 273 (e) (ex-british QF 18 pr Mk I-II on carriage ?)
8.38 cm FK 274 (e) (ex-british QF 18 pr Mk I-II on carriage ?)
8.38 cm FK 305 (r) (ex-russian 8.5 cm M-43g)

8.76 cm FK 280 (e) (ex-british QF 25 pr Mk II-III)
8.76 cm FK 281 (e) (ex-british QF 25 pr Mk I on carriage Mk IVp )
8.76 cm FK 282 (e) (ex-british QF 25 pr Mk I on carriage Mk Vp)

10.0 cm lFH 14 (ö) (ex-austrian M-14 Skoda)
10.0 cm lFH 14/19 (p) and (t) (ex polish and ex-czech M-14/19 Skoda)
10.0 cm lFH 30 (t) (ex-czech M-30 Skoda)
10.0 cm lFH 315 (j) (ex-jugoslavian M-14 Skoda)
10.0 cm lFH-316 (j) (ex-jugoslavian M-14/19 Skoda)
10.0 cm lFH-317 (j) (ex-jugoslavian M-28 FE)
10.0 cm lFH 318 (g) (ex-greek M-14/19 Skoda)

10.5 cm FK 17 and 17/04 (ö) (ex-austrian M-04/17 or K-17)
10.5 cm FK 29 (p) (ex polish M-29, modified french M-13 Schneider)
10.5 cm K 35 (t) (ex-czech M-35)
10.5 cm FK 320 (i) (ex-italian M-15 Skoda)
10.5 cm lFH 322 (f) (ex-french M-?)
10.5 cm lFH 323 (f) (ex-french M-?)
10.5 cm lFH 324 (f) (ex-french M-34 Schneider)
10.5 cm lFH 325 (f) (ex-french M-35B)
10.5 cm lFH 326 (i) (ex-italian Obice 105/14 Ansaldo)
10.5 cm lFH 327 (b) (ex-belgian Obusier de 105 GP, ex-German lFH16)
10.5 cm FK-331 (f) (ex-french M-13 Schneider)
10.5 cm FK-332 (f) (ex-french M-36 Schneider)
10.5 cm FK 333 (b) (ex-belgian M-13, french M-13 Schneider)
10.5 cm FK 334(h) (ex-dutch 10.5 cm M-?)
10.5 cm FK 335 (h) (ex-dutch M-27 Bofors)
10.5 cm FK 336 (j) (ex-jugoslavian M-13, french M-13)
10.5 cm FK 338 (i) (ex-italian M-13, french M-13)
10.5 cm K 339 (j) (ex-jugoslavian M-36)
10.5 cm K 348 (r) (ex-russian M-?)
10.5 cm K 349 (r) (ex-russian M-?)
10.5 cm K 350 (r) (ex-russian M-?)

10.7 cm K 352 (r) (ex-russian M-10/30)
10.7 cm K 353 (r) (ex-russian M-40)

11.4 cm lFH 361 (e) (ex-british QF 4.5 inch, MkII)
11.4 cm K 365 (e) (ex-british BL 4.5 inch gun Mk II

11.5 cm lFH 362 (r) (ex-russian M-?, british QF 4.5 inch, MkII)

12.0 cm K 370 (b) (ex-belgian canon de 120 L m-31)
12.0 cm lFH 373 (h) (ex-dutch 12 cm L14 Bofors)
12.0 cm lFH 375 (n) (ex-norwegian 12 cm M 09 Rheinmetall)
12.0 cm lFH 376 (n) (ex-norwegian 12 cm M 13 Kongsberg)

12.2 cm sFH 385 (r) (ex-russian M-09/30)
12.2 cm sFH 386 (r) (ex-russian M-09/30g)
12.2 cm sFH 387 (r) (ex-russian M-09/30g)
12.2 cm sFH 388 (r) (ex-russian M-10/30)
12.2 cm K 390/1 (r) (ex-russian M-31)
12.2 cm K 390/2 (r) (ex-russian M-31/37)
12.2 cm sFH 396 (r) (ex-russian M-3

12.7 cm K 382 (e) (ex-british BL 60 pr Mk II)

14.5 cm K 405 (f) (ex-french Canon de 145 L M-16 Saint Chamond)
15.0 cm sFH 14 (ö) and (t) (ex-czech and ex-austrian M-14 Skoda)
15.0 cm sFH 15 (t) and (ö) (ex-czech and ex-austrian M-15 Skoda)
15.0 cm K 15/16 (t) (ex-czech M-15/16 Skoda)
15.0 cm sFH 25 (t) (ex-czech M-25 Skoda)
15.0 cm sFH 37 (t) (ex-czech M-37 Skoda)
15.0 cm sFH 400 (i) (ex-italian Obice da 149/12 M-14 Skoda)
15.0 cm sFH 401 (i) (ex italian Obice da 149/13 Skoda)
15.0 cm sFH 402 (j) (ex-jugoslavian M-36 S, Skoda K-1)
15.0 cm K 403 (j) (ex-jugoslavian M-28 Skoda)
15.0 cm sFH 404 (i) (ex italian Obice da 149/14 M-37)
15.0 cm sFH 406 (h) (ex-dutch sFH-13, German War reparations WW 1)
15.0 cm K 408 (i) (ex-italian Canone da 149/40 M-35)
15.0 cm sFH 409 (b) (ex-belgian sFH-13, German War reparations WW 1)
15.0 cm K 410 (i) (ex-italian Canone da 152/37, Skoda )
15.0 cm K 429 (b) (ex-belgian K-16, German War reparations WW 1)
15.0 cm K 461 (d) (ex-danish M-29 L/22 S, french Obusier M-29)
15.2 cm sFH 407 (h) (ex-dutch Howitzer 6”, british BL 6 inch MK I)
15.2 cm sFH 410 (b) (ex-belgian Obusier de 6”, british BL 6 inch MK I)
15.2 cm sFH 412 (e) and (i) (ex-british BL 6” Mk I and ex-italian Obice da 152/13)
15.2 cm K 433/1 (r) (ex-russian M-37 or ML-20)
15.2 cm K 433/2 (r) (ex-russian M-10/34)
15.2 cm K 435 (r) (ex-russian M-10/30)
15.2 cm K 438 (r) (ex-russian M-10/30)
15.2 cm K 440 (r) (ex-russian M-35 or BR-2)
15.2 cm sFH 443 (r) (ex-russian M-38 or M-10)
15.2 cm sFH 445 (r) (ex-russian M-09/30)
15.2 cm sFH 446 (r) (ex-russian M-10/30)
15.2 cm sFH 449 (r) (ex-russian M-17 Schneider, rebored to 15.2 cm)
15.5 cm sFH 17 (p) (ex-polish M-17, french Canon de 155 C M-17)
15.5 cm sFH 413 (b) (ex-belgian Obusier de 155, french Canon de 155 C M-17)
15.5 cm sFH 414 (f) and (i) (ex-french Canon de 155 C M-17 and ex-italian Canone da 155/14)
15.5 cm sFH 415 (f) (ex-french Canon de 155 C M-15 Saint Chamond)
15.5 cm K 416 (f) and (b) (ex-french Canon de 155 L M-17 Schneider)
15.5 cm K 417 (f) (ex-french Canon de 155 GPF-CA)
15.5 cm K 418 (f) (ex-french Canon de 155 GPF)
15.5 cm K 419 (f) (ex-french Canon de 155 GPF-Touzzard)
15.5 cm K 420 (f) and (i) (ex-french and ex-italian Canon de 155 L M-16 Saint Chamond)
15.5 cm K 422 (f) (ex-french Canon de 155 L M-77/14 Schneider)
15.5 cm K 424 (f) (ex-french Canon de 155 L M-32 Schneider)
15.5 cm K 425 (f) (ex-french Canon de 155 L M-18 Schneider)
15.5 cm K 431 (b) (ex-belgian, french Canon de 155 L M-17 Schneider)
15.5 cm K 432 (b) (ex-belgian canon de 155 L M-24)
15.5 cm K 469 (d) (ex-danish model M-29 L/22 S, rebored to 15.5 cm)
20.3 cm H 503 (r) (ex-russian M-31 or B-4)
21.0 cm Mrs 18 (t) (ex-czech M-1
21.0 cm Mrs 18/19 (t) (ex czech Mrs-18/19, mobile version of the Mrs-1
21.0 cm H 520 (i) (ex-italian Obice da 210/22, M-35)
21.0 cm K 521 (r) (ex-russian BR-17, Skoda built M-39)
22.0 cm Mörser 530 (b) (Mortier de 220 TR M 16 Schneider)
22.0 cm Mörser 531 (f) (Mortier de 220 M 16 Schneider)
22.0 cm K-532 (f) (Canon de 220 L M 17 Schneider)
22.0 cm Mörser 538 (j) and (p) (220 M 28 Skoda)
23.4 cm H 545 (b) (BL 9.2 in Howitzer MkII)
23.4 cm H 546 (e) (BL 9.2 in Howitzer MkII)
24.0 cm K 556 (f) (Canon de 240 L M 84/17 St Chamond)
24.0 cm K 559 (r)
24.0 cm K 564 (r)
24 cm Kanone (t) (First produced in 1916, continues in Czech service after WW 1)
28.0 cm H 601 (f) (Mortier de 280 M 14/16 Schneider)
28.0 cm H 602 (f)
28.0 cm H 607 (r)
30.5 cm H 622 (r)
30.5 cm H 623 (r)
30.5 cm H 638 (t) and (j) (Produced in 1916, kept in service by czech and yugoslavian armies)
30.5 cm H 639 (j) (305 mm M 11/30 Skoda)
42.0 Haubitze (t) (42 cm Hofnice M 17 Skoda, used in Sevastopol siege in 1942)

15.2 cm Haubitze (E) 455 (r) Ex russian Howitzer M 1937 on railway mounting
16.4 cm Kanone (E) 453 (f) Ex french Cannon de 164 M 93/96
16.4 cm Kanone (E) 454 (f) Ex french Cannon de 164 M 93/96
19.4 cm Kanone (E) 93 (f) Ex french Cannon de 194 M 70/93 rayee a gauche
19.4 cm Kanone (E) 486 (f) Ex french Cannon de 194 M 70/93 sur affut tous azimuts
24.0 cm Kanone (E) 556 (f) Ex french Cannon de 240 M84/17 Saint Chamond
24.0 cm Kanone (E) 557 (f) Ex french Cannon de 240 sur affut M 84
24.0 cm Kanone (E) 557/1 (f) Ex french Cannon de 240 sur affut M 17
24.0 cm Kanone (E) 558 (f) Ex french Cannon de 240 sur affut M 93/96
27.4 cm Kanone (E) 592 (f) Ex french Cannon de 274 M 17 sur affut a glisement
27.4 cm Kanone (E) 594 (f) Ex french Cannon de 274 M87/93
28.5 cm Kanone (E) 605 (f) Ex french Cannon de 285 sur affut M 17
30.5 cm Kanone (E) 636 (f) Ex french Cannon de 305 M 93/96
30.5 cm Kanone (E) 637 (f) Ex french Cannon de 305 M 06/10
32.0 cm Kanone (E) 651 (f) Ex french Cannon de 320 M 70/84
32.0 cm Kanone (E) 651/1 (f) Ex french Cannon de 320 M 70/84 with longer chamber
32.0 cm Kanone (E) 652 (f) Ex french Cannon de 320 sur affut M 17
34.0 cm Kanone (E) 673 (f) Ex french Cannon de 340 M 12
34.0 cm Kanone (E) 674 (f) Ex french Cannon de 340 M 12 rayee a 6º
34.0 cm Kanone (E) 675 (f) Ex french Cannon de 340 M 12 rayee a 4º
37.0 cm Haubitze (E) 710 (f) Ex french Howitzer de 370 M 15 Filloux
37.0 cm Haubitze (E) 711 (f) Ex french Howitzer de 370 M 15
37.0 cm Kanone (E) 714 (f) Ex french Cannon de 370 M 75/79
40.0 cm Haubitze (E) 752 (f) Ex french Howitzer de 400 M 15/16
52.0 cm Haubitze (E) 871 (f) Ex french Howitzer de 520 M 16


Wwii axis reenactment forum

Re: Illustrated history of the Handschar Division

Post by 42gunner » Wed Feb 10, 2010 1:43 am

Re: Illustrated history of the Handschar Division

Post by 42gunner » Thu Feb 11, 2010 9:32 am

Introduction to Artillery and Crew Served Weapons

Poor Man’s Artillery - 50mm leichte Granatwerfer 36

It could be carried into position by one man but took two men to operate. More effective use included a spotter or forward observer who could pin point targets and adjust the crew’s fire. It was meant for a high angle of fire as the barrel could not depress under 45 degrees. It was a muzzle loading, trigger firing light mortar system that weight at 31 pounds, firing a 5 cm shell. Max range was 568 yards and was capable of supporting troops under a 100 yards. Shell “5cm Wgr. 36” (maroon, as seen above) was 8.5 inches long, weighed 2 pounds with an HE filling. Ten shells were carried in each box, six rounds could be fired in just 8 seconds. A rate of fire of 15 to 25 rounds a minute could be maintained.

Illustration above shows the loadout of a light mortarman and how he carried the base and ammo box. Lower right also shows the textbook fighting hole for a l.Gr.W. 36 team.
It was usually issued at a company level, rarely on platoon level. It helped supplement the fire of other launched projectile weapons like the Schiessbecher or the heavier mortars. However, just like the light machine gun concept it could close in with the enemy and move as fast, keeping up with the advancing riflemen. It would be assigned to overwatch positions with good fields of fire, as the riflemen proceeded to scout ahead.
The picture below perfectly illustrates it’s mobility and usefulness to mountain troops.

8cm schwerer Granatwerfer 34

A s.Gr.W. 34 is being assembled during Mufti’s visit to the range (SS-Aufklarungs Abteilung 13)

This mortar proved to be one of the most versatile in-direct fire weapons a mountain unit could deploy. This particular mortar system earned a reputation for effectiveness comparable to that of the 88mm cannon. The weapon was so similar to the American heavy mortar that American troops had no trouble deploying it against the Axis forces. Further study of the design, one can find out that it’s superior reputation must’ve come from the crews who deployed it. It was a basic smooth bore, muzzle loaded, fixed firing pin mortar. Firing an 81mm HE shell containing 1.1 pounds of TNT, weighing at 3.5kg. A smoke shell was also produced, it contained a pound of sulphur trioxide. The mortar also featured a mil graduated panoramic sight.
Total weight was 124 pounds, capable of being carried into action by a three man crew or by a couple of mules on a longer march.
Heavy mortars were issued on a battalion level, and although they could fire under a 100 meters all the way out to 1900 meters, targets were usually engaged and suppressed between 400 and 1,200 meters. Shells came in steel cases which held four each. A crew from an infantry division would usually bring twenty four rounds into action, mountain divisions however, who were usually issued less weapons would be compensated in ammunition. Resulting in each crew carrying more shells and even assigning more riflemen to carry additional rounds. Crew consisted of at least three members: gunner, who controlled the deflection and elevation mechanism, assistant gunner who loaded the shell on the command of the gunner, and the ammunition bearer that prepared the shell and inserted the proper fuse. Depending on the situation and range to target, a gun leader could be spotting for the crew with binoculars at the scene or he could be relaying the adjustments and commands of a forward observer. Forward observers themselves would be imbedded with the rifle platoon. In reality, regular NCOs and officers would find themselves calling in fire missions and adjusting fire with the aid of radiomen.

Textbook mortar pit to accommodate the 8cm schwerer Granatwerfer 34.

Other Crew Served Weapons
MG42 Lafette
During the early years of World War One, two heavy machine guns were issued to each battalion and treated just like artillery pieces due to the lack of understanding of proper machine gun tactics at the time. The Germans’ quick realization on the importance of these weapons quickly changed their infantry tactics. The rifleman was now there to make sure the machine gunner completed his mission.

Machine gun crews of the SS-Aufklarungs Abteilung 13 posing with their lafette mounted MG42s. (Picture taken in Bosnia during the 1944’s operations)

Depending on the mission and transportation available a Lafette tripod was used with the standard issue Maschinengewehr 42. Featuring a telescopic sight and a traversing and elevating mechanism it made the machine gun more accurate. The tripod made it a heavy machine gun and a heavy machine gun required a larger crew to sustain it’s operation.
The MG42 in it’s light machine gun role required a gunner, and assistant gunner to operate. Basic equipment requirement was an extra barrel and two or more machine gun belts on top of the ammo the gunner already carried. In this role the assistant gunner would also help the gunner stay on target.

Picture above shows the 2-man light machine gun pit, if there was ever a need to dig in.

In the heavy machine gun role, there was an addition and a requirement for an actual spotter/ gun commander who was responsible for the gun’s employment. A couple more riflemen carried spare barrels and ammunition. During a firefight they would remain close by keeping the ammunition available and covering the machine gun team’s advance.
Handschar would receive a decent amount of MG42s, and a machine gun squad was sometimes available for each platoon of riflemen, according to doctrine. Just like with their mortar teams, a smaller number of machine guns in a company would result in issuing of more ammo and barrels to the team.

Assistant gunner with an extra barrel and two ammunition boxes (each box carried 250 linked 7.92mm rounds)


Heavy machine gun pit for German Lafette mounted machine guns.

The accompanying riflemen would be in two man fighting holes on the flanks of the machine gun pits.

If dug in, machine gun teams would be assigned fields of fire and final protective lines. Supplementary and secondary positions would also be assigned. Dead space (trenches, craters,depressions) areas that could not be covered by direct fire weapons would be assigned to light mortar crews (if available) or riflemen with Schiessbechers. The advancing enemy could not be allowed to take cover in depressions and feel comfortable in front of an MG42.


Catalogue history

Russian WWII AFV's

Model built by Marcin Mizielinski

Model / diorama by Martin Zimmermann

This is a re-boxing of the Colibri - Fort kit with new decals and a set of photo etched details. You get the same finely moulded plastic parts, with good interior detail plus the extras provided on the etched fret. windscreen with wipers, radiator grill, brake pedal, clutch pedal and accellerator pedal, spare wheel bracket, etc. The new decal sheet has markings for five vehicles, 4 Soviet and 1 Polish.

Model built by Roman Skiba

For Keith Goodman's impression of kit 72201 - Gaz-67 Jeep, visit:

Kit 72202 - Gaz-AA - 'Polutorka'

Model built by Roman Skiba

GAZ-AA and GAZ-AAA
These kits of the Russian built Ford Model A trucks were originally produced by Komintern. However, they have not been available for the past couple of years and had become highly value collector's items. ACE has now re-issued them with the addition of decals and a small etched fret (containing a number of small details). Both kits are the same, having optional parts to build either version. There are 70 crisp, clean, 'long run' (metal mould) injection moulded parts including an 11 part rear tray. There is a one-piece chassis with separate axles, suspension and drive shaft. The engine is moulded as the bottom half only but with a separate radiator. The cabin is fully fitted out with a bench seat, steering wheel, instrument dash, gear stick, hand brake, foot brake and clutch. There are no clear windows or windscreen. The decal sheet has markings for three trucks.

Kit 72204 - Gaz-AA - PM3 Workshop - complete interior included

Converting into Zis Lap-7 Rocket Launcher, built by Udo Bauer

Rocket Launcher of the Red Army ("home made in Leningrad"). Only a few copies of the device existed

Kit 72205 - Raupenschlepper Ost - RSO

Model built by Thomas Hrdlicka

For Doug Chaltry's impression of kit 72205 - Raupenschlepper Ost - RSO, visit:

Model built by Aart Hoogenstrijd

For Neil Lyall' impression of kit 72207 - RSO ambulance, visit:

Kit 72208 - Raupenschlepper Ost with 7.5cm Pak 40 - RSO

Finished model by Zhenmin Han

Kit 72209 - BA-20 armoured car

finished model by Andrei Makarov

Kit 72210 - BA-20 railway version

Finished model by Neil Lyall

Comments by Neil Lyall
The model has been built out of the box, with only a few changes. I did throw away the antenna supports as they looked a bit thick, and made new ones from sewing needles. The antenna clothes line frame has to be scratch-made from wire for which I used 0.44 mm wire. I drilled out the back of the rubber tyred wheels before mounting them to the body as the rims were cast as one solid piece. I also drilled out the headlamps. It comes with a 15 cm (6 inches) long trackbase. I didnt use the plastic railway lines that come with the kit, on the base, I substituted metal ones.

For internetmodeller - first look's impression of kit 72211 - GAZ-M1 'Emka', visit:

Kit 72212 - Fai-M armoured car

Model built by Andrei Makarov

Kit 72213 - GAZ-61-73 4x4 Soviet staff car

Built model by Leonid Postny

Built model by Igor Leonov

For Leonid Postny's 1/72depot pictures of finished kit 72213 - GAZ-61-73 4x4 Soviet staff car visit:

Kit 72214 - GAZ-11-73 Soviet WW2 staff car (4x2)

Built model by Igor Delanov


15cm sFH 18

15cm sFH 18は1926年~1930年にかけて15cm sFH 13の後継重榴弾砲として開発、1934年に生産が開始されて1945年までに5,403門が竣工した。クルップ社とラインメタル社による競作方式だったが、実際にはラインメタル社製の砲身をクルップ社製の砲架に搭載した物が採用された。10.5cm leFH 18とともに師団砲兵の主力野戦榴弾砲として、第二次世界大戦を通して陸軍と武装親衛隊の双方で広く運用された。また、高級司令部の直轄砲兵や装甲師団の砲兵大隊では、砲架部が共通の10cm sK 18と混成配備されていた時期も存在する。1938年に15cm sFH 36、1940年に15cm sFH 40、1942年に15cm sFH 42が登場したが、15sm sFH 18やマズルブレーキ追加版の15cm sFH 18M(1942年登場)と異なり量産されなかった。

ドイツ以外では、中独合作期の1934年にラ式十五糎榴弾砲(日側呼称)、1936年にクルツプ式15糎榴弾砲(日側呼称)の受注が成立し、中華民国も導入した [注 1] 。フィンランドにも継続戦争時に48門が輸出され、150 H 40の名で採用された。同国では戦後も運用し、近代化改修で152 H 88-40へと生まれ変わった。イタリアにも輸出されてObice da 149/28として運用され、ベニート・ムッソリーニ政権下のイタリア王国やイタリア社会共和国軍で運用された。戦後、ドイツやイタリアが保有していた残存砲はアルバニア、ブルガリア、チェコスロバキア、ユーゴスラビアに戦争賠償として接収され、ソ連製火砲で充当される1960年近くまで間運用が続けられた他、ポルトガルやラテンアメリカ諸国にも輸出されている。

装甲師団などではSd.Kfz.7半装軌車によって牽引されたが、車軸にサスペンションが無い事から機甲部隊での追随性に問題があった。解決策として装甲砲兵用に開発されたのが、フンメル自走榴弾砲である。しかし大抵の場合は装甲砲兵連隊の第1大隊のみの配備で、第2及び第3大隊は15cm sFH 18Mを継続使用していた。

主な弾薬として次が用意されていた。軟目標用の榴弾(Gr.19及びGr.19 Stg.とGr.36)、硬目標用の成形炸薬弾(Gr.39 HL/AとGr.39 HL/B)や対コンクリート弾(Gr.19 Be)、遠距離砲戦用のロケット補助推進弾(R.Gr.19とR.Gr.19/40)や装弾筒付榴弾(Sprgr.42 TS)、その他用途の発煙弾(Gr.19 NbとGr.38 Nb及びGr.40 Nb)や装弾筒付徹甲榴弾(Pzgr.39 TS)や焼夷弾(Gr.19 Br.)である。1940年に製造されたR.Gr.19は初速505m/s及び最大射程18,200mという性能で、1941年に登場したR.Gr.19/40では最大射程が19,000mに改善された。砲身負荷が大きく命中精度も悪化した事から多用されなかったが [注 2] 、ソ連軍高級司令部の直轄砲兵が装備するA-19 122mmカノン砲(最大射程20,400m)やML-20 152mm榴弾砲(最大射程17,230m)との対砲兵戦を支援した。Sprgr.42 TSは砲外弾道に優れた形状とした12.8cm榴弾へ装弾筒を装着した砲弾で、性能は初速645m/s及び最大射程18,000mだった。Pzgr.39 TSは対戦車戦闘用で、8.8cm仮帽付被帽付徹甲榴弾に装弾筒を装着していた。

15cm sFH 18の射程不足は開戦前から判明しており、15cm sFH 40以外にも大戦中に後継として、シュコダ社とクルップ社が取り組んだ10.5cm leFH 43の拡大発展型である15cm sFH 43やシュコダ社・クルップ社・ラインメタル社の三社で計画された15cm sFH 44の開発に踏み切っていたが、諸事情で実用化に至っていない。因みに独ソ戦の戦訓から要求された性能は、全周射界、45度以上の高仰角射撃、最大射程がソ連製同級火砲をアウトレンジ可能な20,000m以上という内容だった。


15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 36 L/23 - History

Germany, 1945: A Panzerjäger Tiger Ausf. B Jagdtiger (Hunting Tiger) stands guard. This 77-ton Porsche-designed armored behemoth was the heaviest armored fighting vehicle to see combat in World War II and remains the heaviest armored fighting vehicle ever produced.
From World of Tanks

Dr. Ferdinand Porsche, renowned for agile post-WWll sports cars, designed some of the most stupendous armored fighting vehicles ever built

Originally published in the January/February 1996 issue of

Author’s note: I had thought the original article lost to history, then checked the Internet Wayback Machine and lo! Downloaded this PDF from the 2001 version of my site.

Dr. Ing. h.c. Ferdinand Porsche

P olitically correct readers may wonder what what the heck an article on tanks is doing in a publication nominally dedicated to Porsche. They should remind themselves that der Porsche Sprecher is dedicated not just to Porsche cars, but to all things Porsche. This “dark chapter” in the marque’s history is rarely covered in the more mainstream publications. Porsche panzerkampfwagens (PzKpfws armored fighting vehicles)—at once fearsome in their capabilities and comical in their limitations—provide a fascinating counterpoint to the fleet and nimble sports cars manufactured by the company after the war. One can admire them while still deploring their purpose, much as one can admire a Porsche sports car while using it to break the legal speed limit.

War was already inevitable in 1939, when the design bureau of Dr. -Ing. h.c.F. Porsche, KG, started work on its first panzerkampfwagen . It was natural that Adolf Hitler would ask his favorite engineer, Prof. Ferdinand Porsche—designer of the People’s Car, der Volkswagen , and chief engineer of the government-backed Auto Union team which dominated auto racing through the 1930s—to lend his natural talent to tank design. The Army Ordnance Office, the Heereswaffenamt , had issued a requirement for a heavy “breakthrough” tank. Though surely unnecessary for a purely defensive military, as Germany’s was supposed to be, it packed a 75mm gun and was designated VK3001: Vollkettenkraftfahrzeug (fully tracked experimental vehicle), 30 tons, design #1.

Porsche VK3001(P), 1942.
Never actually tested with armed turret. More

The Porsche submission, VK3001(P), was known within the company as the Typ 100 or “Leopard.” It featured a number of innovations stemming from Porsche’s automotive background: externally-mounted, longitudinal torsion-bar suspension and two ten-liter V-10 air-cooled engines delivering 200 horsepower each at 2,500 rpm. These were not linked directly to the treads, but supplied power for generators driving electrical transmissions (Porsche was by training an electrician), which turned the sprocketed drive wheels. Two prototypes, sans turrets, were built by the Steyr-Daimler factory at Nibelüng. Extensive testing throughout 1940-41 proved the concept sound, but the engines unsatisfactory. By that time, however, VK3001 itself was obsolete. The invasions of France and Russia had changed very the definition of “heavy tank.”

British and French tanks already outgunned and out-armored German panzers only a high degree of training and blitzkrieg tactics emphasizing speed and maneuver enabled the Wehrmacht to conquer France. And the Russians had unveiled their revolutionary T-34, an evolution of an unused American design heretofore unknown in the West. It weighed just 27.6 tons and featured wide treads and a 500-hp V-12 diesel for mobility in Russian mud and snow. Its low profile and thick, sloped armor warded off enemy fire. The heavier KV-1, though not as sophisticated in concept, was the most formidable tank in the world. Both mounted a high-velocity, 76.2mm cannon, which could penetrate panzers from over 1,000 yards away at this point few German tanks packed as much as a short-barreled, low-velocity 75mm. Luckily the Soviets deployed their tanks in piecemeal fashion, for even one at a time they were nearly unstoppable. The first T-34 ever met by the 17th Panzer Division, near Senno on the Dneiper River on 8 July 1941, singlehandedly drove over nine miles into the German lines, shooting up everything in its path and actually rolling over a 37mm antitank gun (which the Germans would soon refer to as their “Army doorknocker”), until finally shot from behind by a 105mm artillery piece.

On 23 June a single KV-1, wedged in a defile in front of the 6th Panzer Division, had held up the German advance for two days, its thick armor shrugging off all attempts to destroy it. Finally, while its Russian crew were busily destroying some Wehrmacht light tanks, the Germans maneuvered one of their 88mm anti-aircraft guns within 900 yards. With its 17-foot barrel, the high-velocity, flat-shooting “Eighty-Eight” could hit a bomber five miles up it also succeeded in penetrating the KV right through the front.

Flugzeugabwehrkanone (FlaK) 88mm in action

But each 88mm gun weighed nearly five tons and required towing. What was needed was a tank capable of packing this heavy weapon. In fact, one month prior to the invasion of Russia, on 26 May 1941, the Waffenamt had issued a requirement for such a tank, designated VK4501. Among others, Porsche and heavy-equipment manufacturer Henschel und Sohn (which had also attempted a VK3001 design) accepted the challenge. At the time, the only urgency was that the new prototypes had to be ready for demonstration by der Führer’s next birthday: 20 April, 1942. It would take Porsche and Nibelungenwerke all eleven months.

To begin with, a muzzle brake went on the end of the gun, to deflect propellant gases rearward and thereby shorten recoil in a crowded turret. The turret itself, designed by Porsche and built by the Krupp armaments works, was enclosed within a single piece of steel, three inches thick and bent into a horseshoe shape. Taken together, this massed some 20 tons and necessitated a low-geared power traverse mechanism. Porsche also enlarged each V-10 to 15 liters, good for 320 hp at 2,500 rpm, and reportedly considered abandoning his electrical transmission for an hydraulic system. Time constraints dictated that he simply scale up the Typ 100. As a result the final product, the Typ 101, exceeded its weight requirement by some 12 tons.

Porsche Tiger prototype VK4501(P), 1942
With 88mm Kampfwagenkanone (KwK) 36 L/56 gun. More

On the day before the demonstration both the Porsche and Henschel prototypes were transported by rail flatcar to Rastenburg, still almost seven miles from Hitler’s headquarters. Upon offloading via crane, the Typ 101 sank up to its belly in soft ground. Henschel engineers offered the use of their prototype to tow it out, rather overconfidently, as the VK4501(H) was no lighter, possessed fewer horses, and had yet to be driven under its own power. (For the record, Porsche refused their help.)

On the trip to headquarters both tanks broke down multiple times and required overhauls. On the next day, however, the Porsche made a 1,000-yard speed run at a sustained 30mph. The Henschel could do no more than 900 yards at 25 mph, and its single watercooled, 21-liter, 600-hp Maybach V-12 overheated near to catching fire. But it had eight forward and four reverse gears, and a novel suspension of eight independently sprung torsion bar axles per side, with three rubber-rimmed roadwheels per axle, in an interleaving arrangement. This made it more maneuverable and better-riding than the Porsche—no small considerations in a 50-ton tank. It was selected to become the PzKpfw VI, the famous Tiger (though it retained the Porsche turret, with some minor modifications to the roof line, and its engine was later upgraded to 23 liters and 700hp).

As a sort of consolation prize (and just in case the Henschel project suffered unforeseen delays—building each Tiger required some 300,000 man-hours) Porsche was contracted for 90 examples of his own design. He completed five (slated for the North African front, where their air-cooled engines might prove advantageous), but he was unable to resolve the model’s drivetrain problems. Production ceased in October. 85 uncompleted chassis went into storage at Nibelüng the completed models went instead to the training center at Döllersheim.

Panzerkampfwagen VI Tiger (P) or Sd.Kfz.181.
A single VK 45.01 (P) was modified by installation of two Maybach HL 120 engines (same as Panzer IV), front armor increased to 200mm, and a covering of zimmerit anti-mine paste. In April 1944 it was sent to the Eastern Front with Schwere Panzerjäger Abteilung (Heavy Tank Hunter Battalion) 653 and fought until July. More

Meanwhile the Russians were busily upgrading their T-34s with an 85mm gun that could, at close range, penetrate even a Tiger. Keeping them at arm’s length required German tanks to pack an even more powerful gun. Lengthening the 88’s barrel to 20' 7" resulted in the 88 mm KwK (Kampfwagenkanone —battlewagon cannon) 43 L/7, which could impart to a 19&half-pound shell a muzzle velocity of almost 3,700 feet per second—enough drill half a foot of sloped, homogenous armor plate 2,200 yards away. But there was not yet a tank turret capable of holding such a long, muzzle-heavy piece even with a double-baffle muzzle brake, recoil could reach nearly two feet.

The solution was to build a tank without a turret: simpler, stronger, cheaper. The 85 chassis at Nibelüng came out of mothballs. Dr. Porsche oversaw the conversions himself, and the new jagdpanzers (hunting tanks) took his name: Ferdinand.

SdKfz 184 Panzerjäger Tiger (P) Ferdinand
With 88mm KwK 43

A roomy superstructure, 9¾' tall, was installed where the Porsche V-10s formerly resided: at the far rear, where it minimized the immense overhang of the gun. The gun’s limited traverse󈟞° up, left and right and 8° down—was partially offset by the extraordinary armor thickness of almost eight inches on the front surfaces (thicker than on some First World War battlecruisers) and a little over three inches on the sides and rear. Two 11.8-liter, watercooled Maybach V-12s yielding 300hp apiece—but still linked to the electrical drive—went into the former fighting compartment in the center of the tank. As power went down and weight went up (to 71 tons!), the new panzer was even less mobile than the Tiger.

In summer 1943 the Ferdinands were rushed to central Russia, where, with armor impervious to frontal fire and guns able to take out T-34s from three miles away, they should have reigned as supreme standoff weapons on the open steppes. Instead they were used to spearhead the greatest tank battle in history: Kursk.

The Battle of Kursk by Sergei Nikolaevich Prisekin
Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Moscow

Ferdinands at Kursk. Footage starts out German, ends Russian. (Silent) Enlarge

Pushing in among the massed Russian defenders they proved all too vulnerable. Typical shooting range fell to less than 100 yards—for tanks, point-blank—and the lack of rotating turrets left the Ferdinands wide open to flanking fire. Tank-hunting parties of Russian infantrymen draped explosive charges over the gun barrels or attached them to the hull sides. (The corrugated appearance of many late-war German tanks derives from a coating of zimmerit , a paste intended to prevent enemy soldiers from attaching magnetic mines to their hulls.) A crucial oversight in the Ferdinands’ redesign was the lack of a machine gun with which to sweep aside enemy infantry crews were said to have used their gunsights to spot Russian troops, and then spray machine gun fire down their gun barrels—a technique which Colonel-General Heinz Guderian referred to as “quail shooting with cannon.”

Jagdpanzer Tiger (P) (Sd.Kfz.184) Ferdinand, chassis #150094, unit number 231
3rd Platoon, 2nd Company, s.Pz.Jag.Abt.653. Commanded by the Oberfeldwebel Friedrich Meigen during Operation Zitadelle (Citadel). Orel, Russia, 5 July 1943. #231 featured a unique camouflage of green spots profiled to reddish brown over the base dark yellow. All other known Ferdinands in s.Pz.Jag.Abt.653 were green except for one with lines Intertwined with green and reddish brown. More

However, more Ferdinands fell to mechanical difficulties than enemy action. The small number produced meant there was a dearth of spare parts those which broke down were cannibalized rather than repaired. The Ferdinand has the unfortunate distinction of being the conspicuous failure in a battle which was a turning point of the war. That this was a product of misuse, rather than a failure of design, was not lost on the German high command. Survivors of Kursk were taken back to Nibelüng to have machine guns mounted in their hulls, extra armor plates added to their gun mounts, and cupolas installed atop the superstructures for better visibility. Renamed “Elefant,” they were redeployed to Italy, a mountainous country in which they were relegated to (barely) mobile pillboxes. Ironically they found their niche in this defensive role: Firing from fixed, strategic positions, they made short work of the Americans’ thinly armored, highly combustible Sherman tanks, at least until they broke down or were outflanked.

SdKfz 184 Panzerjäger Tiger (P) Elefant
With added zimmerit anti-mine paste, commander cupola, bow-mounted machine gun, and extra armour plate on the gun to protect the ball-mounting in the fighting compartment.

But now the tide had turned against the Germans. The Tiger’s Henschel suspension, with its multitude of road wheels, proved too easily jammed with mud and snow, particularly in the Russian wastes, where the enemy attacked at dawn when Tiger treads were frozen solid. Its slow turret traverse allowed the enemy to get round it and attack from the rear. With the British and Americans obviously gearing up to invade Europe, the Germans needed to mount the Elefant’s tank-killing cannon in a more conventional, more mass-produced panzerkampfwagen, and quickly.

Prof. Porsche had already solved the problem. The gun’s immense length would cause it to bear hard on the leading edge of a finely-machined turret ring mechanism his solution was to spread the load by extending the turret both to the front and rear. The rear bustle, with armor three inches thick, provided extra room for ammo storage the front (armored to over four inches) and sides were ballistically sloped and curved to deflect shot. This complicated manufacture and induced flaws yet to be revealed, but Porsche was sure enough of a production contract to undertake construction. He produced a hull design in two variants: the Typ 180, with the turret mounted in the hull center, and the Typ 181, with a rear-mounted turret. Despite a wartime shortage of copper, he’d persisted in trying to work the bugs out of his electrical drive, unsuccessfully.

Porsche prototype 180, Panzer VI Königstiger .

Porsche prototype 181, Panzer VI Königstiger .

As a result, a new Henschel hull design, with sloped armor like the T-34’s and a simplified road wheel arrangement, was selected to become the Tiger II, also called the Königstiger (King or Royal Tiger), the most powerful tank of the war. At 75 tons, it was also the heaviest a 23-liter Maybach V-12 averaging 600 horses (and peaking at 700) could theoretically move one at 35mph, but only on solid, level ground. Mere transportation and deployment involved numerous difficulties, not the least of which was that drivers had to take care, when negotiating rough ground, not to dig the long gun’s muzzle into the dirt. The first Königstiger s rolled off the assembly line in January 1944, but didn’t reach combat units until June.

Panzer VI Königstiger with Porsche turret. Châteaudon, France, August 1944.
“White 11” was one of the first five King Tigers deployed in combat.
More about the “Battle of Châteaudon”

SS-Pz.Abt. (SS-Panzer Battalion) 503 on parade, Sept. 1944. Unit subsequently entrained for Hungary to forestall a possible uprising. Enlarge

Once in action their gun/armor combination was more than enough to defeat the newest Allied tanks, yet was not invulnerable. A full 360° rotation by the two-speed power traverse still took at least 19 seconds, and more usually up to 75, hardly fast enough to follow a speeding Sherman or T-34. But manual rotation of the turret required both the loader and gunner to turn hand cranks, 680 times for the former and 700 for the latter! It was said that more Königstiger crewmen died of overwork than enemy action. On the other hand, enterprising gunners found that if they removed the cannon’s spent-shell deflector shield and opened the rear turret hatch, sheer recoil was sufficient to kick empty casings completely out onto the rear deck.

More seriously, combat showed up the flaws in the Porsche turret itself. A bulge accommodating the commander’s cupola tended to catch shells skittering along the port turret side, and there was a major shot trap below the curved gun mantlet, where incoming shells were deflected not away but down, through the thinly armored hull roof and into the driver’s compartment.

Armored combat no longer forgave such flaws. The Russians had already introduced their “Josef Stalin II” tank, with a brutal 122mm gun. The British had taken to APDS shot (armor-piercing discarding-sabot essentially an inert casing, or sabot, which fell away after exiting the muzzle and left a slim tungsten-carbide dart to proceed to the target at almost 4,000 feet per second). Shaped charges, which did not rely on velocity and could be fired by one man from a recoilless, shoulder-held rocket launcher (bazooka), attacked armor plate with a jet of superhot gas and molten metal at overpressures of up to 2000 tons per square inch. With all these weapons arrayed against the tank, no lack of protection could be taken for granted.

Panzer VI Königstiger with Henschel turret. Ardennes, December 1944. Zimmerit paste was discontinued as of Sept. 9, 1944

SS-Pz.Abt. (SS-Panzer Battalion) 501, including King Tiger #222, passes through Tondorf, Germany, toward Ardennes. Enlarge

As a result, only the first 50 Königstiger s carried the Porsche turret the rest (439) carried a redesigned Henschel turret, with a flat face and simpler sides. But manufacturing a Königstiger still absorbed much time and material that could been better used in producing a simpler, less impressive design, and consumed the Henschel facilities.

So it fell to Nibelungenwerke—and Porsche—to entertain the fantasies of the German high command. If a Tiger could be upgunned to make a Ferdinand, they wondered, what could be made of a Königstiger ? The “next gun up” from the 󈭈,” the Panzerabwehrkanone 44, measured 128mm across the bore—five inches, approximately the same as that on a typical naval destroyer—with a barrel 23 feet long. The PaK 44 could out-range any other gun and penetrate any other tank even at maximum range, slamming a 75-pound shell through almost six inches of sloped steel at over 2,000 yards. But its recoil alone measured three feet. What monstrous vehicle could fire it? From this pointless exercise arose the incredible Jagdtiger (“Hunting Tiger”), the most stupendous armored fighting vehicle of the war—indeed, of all time.

Dr. Porsche’s close relationship with the factory allowed him some leeway in tampering with the design. He started with a slightly lengthened Königstiger hull, extending the sides up to form another blocky superstructure where the turret had been. The front of this he armored to almost ten inches of steel. Weight, of course, went up yet again, to 77 tons, more than any other widely used armored fighting vehicle before or since. To move this mass, Porsche designed a 700-horsepower diesel engine, the Typ 212 to bear it (and to conserve interior space and manufacturing time) he redesigned the Königstiger’s suspension, using sprung rollers and nine small(er) road wheels per side instead of the Königstiger’s eight large ones. Two Jagdtigers —serial numbers 305001 and 305004—were built with this suspension, and possibly one of these with this engine. During testing, however, one of them snapped off a set of wheels. To avoid getting sidetracked in a design exercise—at this point in the German war effort, time was increasingly crucial—it was decided to stick with the existing suspension and the Königstiger’s gasoline engine. Production went on apace with that of the Königstiger and the prototype was completed in April 1944. 150 production models were ordered but only about 60 were available in time for the Ardennes offensive—the Battle of the Bulge—in December of that year.

Jagdtiger vs. Soviet ISU 152
From War Thunder

In action the Jagdtiger was difficult to hide from Allied aircraft, which had complete control of the air and could destroy it with a well-aimed bomb on the roof. It also suffered frequent breakdowns of overstressed engines and suspension. Top speed, on paper, was a blistering 23mph on asphalt it was nearer 9mph. In fact a single Jagdtiger , straddling a Belgian road, once completely stopped the American advance despite the fact that it had been abandoned. The Americans simply couldn’t move it aside. They finally had to build a new road around it.

Hitler was already contemplating even more outlandish and impractical panzers. As early as June 1942 he’d personally authorized Porsche to design a new class of tank, the superheavy. The resultant Porsche Typ 205, codenamed Mammut (Mammoth) would mount at least the 128mm cannon (150mm and even 170mm guns were considered) with a 75mm—the heaviest tank gun available at the beginning of the war—as a coaxial secondary armament. Armor was to be on the order of ten inches on the hull front, 9&half inches on the turret face, eight inches elsewhere. As might be expected, Porsche envisioned longitudinal torsion bar suspension, an air-cooled engine and electrical transmission. Over the objections of the Waffenamt, who now took Porsche’s ideas with a grain of salt (and in fact embarked on their own superheavy tank project with Henschel, which never reached completion), in August 1943 Hitler gave him the go-ahead to produce prototypes.

Panzerkampfwagen VIII, Porsche Typ 205 Maus

As the first one took shape it was renamed, with evident cynicism, Maus (Mouse). It weighed no less than 207 tons, the turret alone, some 10 feet across, weighing 50 tons. Its air cooler required 150 horsepower. Porsche’s engine and suspension never worked out. There wasn’t room enough for all the necessary torsion bars, so the prototype rolled on 48 road wheels and a volute suspension designed by the Czechslovakian firm Skoda. Its 1,080-horsepower Mercedes-Benz aircraft engine still powered a Porsche electric drive, which was now essential: Since no bridge could support the Maus, it was intended to cross rivers up to 25 feet deep by rolling across their bottoms, breathing through a snorkel and drawing electrical power via cable from a second Maus on the riverbank. Completed in November 1943, the prototype tested in December with a mock turret, and again in June 1944 with a turret and armament. A second, turretless model began testing that September, but its Mercedes-Benz diesel engine was accidentally destroyed and went unreplaced until April 1945 Hitler had ordered all superheavy tank projects set aside to concentrate production on existing tanks. Still, two more Maus hulls were under construction when the Soviets threatened the Krupp testing area at Meppen. To prevent them from capturing the prototypes, all were blown up.

Mauskampf
Panzer VIII Maus as land battleship, rolling over Soviet tanks

Porsche himself referred to these projects as mere mobile fortifications, but who was he to deny the Führer’s wildest wishes? Captured at war’s end were plans for a Maus with a 12-inch mortar, called Bär (Bear), and a preliminary layout for a 1,500-ton monster tank powered by four U-boat diesel engines (keep in mind that most U-boats only used two), with ten-inch armor and three turrets—a pair of 150mm guns and a main, 800mm cannon. Compare this bore󈟯.4 inches—to the 380mm (15in.) main guns on the German battleship Bismarck , and you’ll begin to understand the extent to which the Nazi high command were deranged. Perhaps the war would actually have been shortened, had such projects gone into production—no doubt the entire German labor force would have been tied up in bringing them to fruition.

s.Pz.Jäg.Abt. (schwere Panzerjäger-Abteilung Heavy Anti-tank Battalion) 512 surrenders their last Jagdtigers at Iserlohn, Germany, 16 April 1945. A week earlier this unit destroyed 30 US Army vehicles and 11 US Sherman tanks, some from a distance of more than 4,000 meters. (Silent) Enlarge

In April 1944 the Porsche facility at Stuttgart had been hit by American bombs and the company had since moved to the famous abandoned sawmill outside Gmünd, Austria. To keep busy it designed and repaired farm tractors and wind-powered generators. When the Allies finally advanced into Gmünd the Professor was briefly detained, investigated for war crimes, and freed. The French, however, lured him, his son Ferry and son-in-law Dr. Anton Piëch to France to build a French People’s Car, and threw them into prison. French reasoning remains unclear. Dr. Porsche had taken up the cause of French workers at Peugeot when that company was under control of the German SS. Possibly the French auto industry wished to eliminate potential competition. If so, they failed. Ferry Porsche, freed early on, ran the company in concert with his sister Louise and raised the half-million francs bail money by designing a racing car, the Typ 360, for the Italian firm Cistalia. After two years the French dropped all charges but never repaid the money and upon his release the Professor, at over 70 years of age, soon realized their fears. For the Gmünd factory had already embarked on the first car that would bear the Porsche name: the Typ 356.

About the author

Author/illustrator/historian Don Hollway has been published in Aviation History, Excellence, History Magazine, Military Heritage, Military History, Civil War Quarterly, Muzzleloader, Porsche Panorama, Renaissance Magazine, Scientific American, Vietnam, Wild West, and World War II magazines. His work is also available in paperback, hardcover and across the internet, a number of which rank extremely high in global search rankings.


UBB.threads Forums General Interest Collector's Showcase Schlange Collection

Nice to see some hi grade condition items! everything in really good condition!! The Pz m-43 jacket looks unissued!

I think the jacket is issued. (There are traces of wearing on the neck area.)
Unfortunately I dont have any german fur hat in my collection.

Late-war K98 pouch Rbnr. 0/0833/0007

G43 pouch bla44 (E.B. Leuner, Bautzen)

WH Heer late-war Panzergrenadier displey with added Y straps and pouch for G43 rifle

Very nice collection, in great condition. - Congrats !

105mm Schwere Kanone sFH 18 photo

Hello Schlange, you show us here in this thread a lot of very nice conditioned (therefore mostly rare), interesting and mixed items. A pleasure to see and study.
Thank you for showing these items from your collection.
But I think that the certain pic does show a 15cm sFH18 (schwere Feldhaubitze 18), not a 10,5cm which would be a lFH18 (leichte Feldhaubitze 18) which is shown in your next pic.
Regards,

"Never look for sqare eggs" as a late owner of an original FHH-dagger used to say.


History

The sFH 18 was first developed in 1933 and like other artillery pieces at the time, it was designed to be pulled by horse but later changed to half-track/truck carriage. It was designed by Krupp and Rheinmetall and was soon accepted as the Wehrmacht's standard heavy howitzer throughout the war in 1934. Α] The sFH 18 was adaptable and was used in a veriety of places besides infantry support. For example, in the Atlantic Wall and on the SdKfz 165 Hummel. As was the reason for one of its major variants, the sFH 18 saw extensive use on the Eastern Front along with combat on the Western Front. In total, about 5,000 sFHs were made by the end of the war in 1945.


Watch the video: Schwere Feldhaubitze 18. HELL LET LOOSE. 4K