Proteus ScStr - History

Proteus ScStr - History


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Proteus

(ScStr: t. 1,244; 1. 203'; b. 36', dph. 20'8" dr. 13'9", s. 11 k;
a. 1 100-pdr. P.r.; 2 30-pdr. P.r.; 6 32-pdrs.; 2 12-pdr. r.)

The first Proteus, a wooden screw steamer, was purchased from William P. Williams, at New York, 5 October 1863 and commissioned 10 March 1864, Comdr. Robert W. Shufeldt in command.

Sailing south from New York 11 April, Proteus arrived at Key West on the 22nd. On 14 May she got underway for Cuba, where she watched for blockade runners bound for Wilmington from the Windwards. Back at Key West 24 May she headed for the Bahama Banks to intercept traffic from Nassau. On 9 June she took the British schooner R. S. Hood and on the 27th, Jupiter out of London. In early September she captured Ann Louisa out of Havana, and on 27 February 1865, the steamer Ruby, also out of Havana.

On 4 March Proteus arrived off the St. Marks River, Fla., to support Union forces marching on Tallahassee. ShaHow water prevented the Naval force from following the troops up the river and the Army, without support, fell back. The mouth, however, was retained by Union forces to prevent its use as a port for the South.

Proteus returned to Key West, 12 March, and on the 21st headed north to New York. There on 12 July 1865 she was sold at public auction to Hooper and Co.


Rent Smart/Home Ownership Education is a holistic curriculum on money and credit management course sponsored by UMOS. NFJP clients are educated on how to obtain and maintain safe, decent and affordable housing as a renter or home owner.

Course topics and information include:

  • impact of income and expenses
  • spending habits
  • credit history
  • landlord/tenant communication
  • rights and responsibilities

In addition, information regarding fair housing and rights under the Fair Housing law is provided.

With their attendance, each eligible farmworker earns $75.00 to be applied to their next month’s rent. Subject to funding availability.

If you are interested in attending or hosting a class, contact the Proteus office nearest to you.


Herodotus’ Proteus: Myth, History, Enquiry, and Storytelling

This chapter examines Herodotus' reshaping of Proteus to fit his historiographical narrative. By staging Proteus as king of Egypt in the Histories Herodotus breaks with the mythological tradition of Proteus as an immortal seer and sea-god. Whereas scholars tend to explain this reshaping as the result of the historian's investigations in Egypt, the chapter explores possible literary and rhetorical reasons that may have led Herodotus to present Proteus so differently from his mythical namesake. It argues that Herodotus, without losing sight of the Homeric intertext, held up Proteus as educator and example for the Greeks, and as an emblem for his own historiographical enterprise.

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Avatars can affect behaviors in VR

Research has shown that the users might not even be aware of the influence of avatars on their subsequent decisions. (Sherrick et al, 2014) Proteus Effect has had effects on things like stereotypical behaviors inside of virtual reality. Other examples that research has uncovered include:

  • People behave more confidently with taller avatars (Yee & Bailenson, 2007 Yee et al., 2009)
  • Individuals may act friendlier if their avatars are more attractive (Messinger et al, 2008 Yee & Bailenson, 2007)
  • Individuals may report more negative and aggressive thoughts if their avatars are dressed in black or in Ku Klux Klan outfits (Peña, Hancock, & Merola, 2009)
  • Individuals may report less aggression if their avatars are males facing females in battle (Eastin, 2006)
  • Participants who wore sexualized avatars internalized the avatar’s appearance and self-objectified, reporting more body-related thoughts than those wearing nonsexualized avatars. (Fox et al., 2013)

This mounting research suggests that people do alter their cognitions and behaviors based on assumptions about the appearance of their avatars. (Sherrick et al, 2014) These findings suggest that even though a user might not realize it, they may fall under the effect of gender and racial stereotypes (among a potentially vast array of many other psychological phenomena) in virtual reality depending on the characteristics of their avatar and the avatars around them.

There is another body of research that suggests that people create avatars that are like themselves- and that people rate their avatar generally more positively than themselves. Additional research has also looked at the Proteus Effect as it relates to empathy- specifically the empathy people feel towards in-groups and out-groups.


History of Flow Meters

The concept of flow meters and flow measurement became known to people as early as a thousand years ago, particularly as water conservancy, farming, and irrigation became important to human civilizations.

Flow meters serve two purposes: the first is process control and check and the second is for improving product quality which reduces material costs and increases efficiency. Flow meters are frequently used in industries such as petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, home energy, pulp and building, and metallurgy.

The development and use of flow meters have changed with time, but their requirement remains the same: precision and accuracy.

Ancient Civilizations

In ancient Egypt, people utilized weir rudiments to assess the flow of the Nile River. This provided an indication of whether the harvest would be favorable or unfavorable.

In China, around 256 BC, the State of Qin implemented the Dujiangyan irrigation system as a way to control floods and provide water conservation. The infrastructure of this irrigation system is located on the Min River which is the tributary of the Yangtze River. Before Dujiangyan irrigation system was implemented, water from the Min River would rush down the Min Mountains and abruptly reach the Chengdu Plain, causing an abrupt buildup of silt, leaving the area susceptible to flooding. The governor of the state of Qin and his son headed up the construction of the Dujiangyan irrigation system. It harnessed the power of the river by way of dividing and channeling the water instead of relying on the traditional dam building. This irrigations system is still in use today. It presently irrigates more than 5,300 square kilometers of land in the area.

Modern Times

In the 1700s, modern flow meters saw more enhanced development. In 1738, Swiss Daniel implemented differential pressure to judge water flow. Later on, in 1791, Italian researcher G. B. Venturi conducted studies on the Venturi tube to measure flow. His results were published later that year.

Much later in 1886, Hershel in the USA devised the Venturi device to effectively measure water flow in open channels. Parshall later changed the Venturi flume to a Parshall flume in 1922.

From 1911 to 1912, American Hungarians Tollbar devised a new theory called the Tollbar vortex. By the 1930s, ultrasonic flow meters were being utilized to measure liquid air flow velocity, but they did not achieve good results. In 1955 Maxon created the sound cycling method to accurately measure flow in aviation fuel.

Due to the limitations of technology and economy up to and during the 1950s, only Orifice plate flow meters were being used in all industries, including the rotate flow and pilot tube.

The 1960s saw the creation of instruments that leaned towards miniaturization and precision. As the 1990s appeared, the demand for flow meters took an upsurge. It was estimated that in 1989 alone, 15 million flow meters were mounted. Ultrasonic flow meters, in particular, saw advanced development.

Currently, there are more one hundred types of flow meters being used in the world. In the USA alone, there are more than 200 companies that produce flow meters.

As the brief history of flow meters illustrates above, this is an important technology. They are used in a variety of industries around the globe and continue to be developed.


Physical

The following are characteristics of Proteus syndrome:

When present at birth, asymmetric limb, digital, or cranial overgrowth may be a major diagnostic finding

Digital, limb, or cranial overgrowth usually involves both soft tissue and bone

Cranial or external auditory canal hyperostosis may be seen

Scoliosis associated with disproportionate vertebral growth is common

The combination of disproportionate overgrowth and focal atrophy can lead to a unique habitus characterized by wasting of upper arm muscles, an elongated thorax, an extremely gracile neck, and muscular hypertrophy of the thighs

Cystic lung malformations that lead to cystic pulmonary emphysema and restrictive lung disease secondary to severe scoliosis are relatively common recurrent pneumonias, shortness of breath, or reduced exercise tolerance may point to significant respiratory compromise

Organomegaly is less common but can also occur with splenomegaly or occasional thymus enlargement

Cutaneous findings include the following:

The 6 most common skin findings include (from most to least frequent) lipomas, vascular malformations, connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, partial lipohypoplasia, and patchy dermal hypoplasia

Connective tissue nevi are virtually pathognomonic and typically have a cerebriform contour they often occur on the soles of the feet but can also be found on other areas

Epidermal nevi tend to be the flat, soft variety

Lipomas may be well demarcated or locally invasive, with large intra-abdominal or intrathoracic lesions presenting serious medical concerns

Vascular lesions may include capillaries, lymphatics, venules, or combinations of these they tend to grow gradually over time and, unlike the more common capillary hemangiomas seen in the general population, rarely regress port wine stains or patchy hyperpigmentation may also be seen

Facial features that often coincide with poor mental development include a prominent occiput, ptosis with or without down - slanting palpebrae, upturned nose, and a long, narrow face.

References

Nathan NR, Patel R, Crenshaw MM, et al. Pathogenetic insights from quantification of the cerebriform connective tissue nevus in Proteus syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Apr. 78 (4):725-32. [Medline].

Rocha RCC, Estrella MPS, Amaral DMD, Barbosa AM, Abreu MAMM. Proteus syndrome. An Bras Dermatol. 2017 Sep-Oct. 92 (5):717-20. [Medline]. [Full Text].

van Steensel MA. Neurocutaneous Manifestations of Genetic Mosaicism. J Pediatr Genet. 2015 Sep. 4 (3):144-53. [Medline]. [Full Text].

Lindhurst MJ, Sapp JC, Teer JK, Johnston JJ, Finn EM, Peters K, et al. A mosaic activating mutation in AKT1 associated with the Proteus syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2011 Aug 18. 365(7):611-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].

Cohen MM Jr. Proteus syndrome: an update. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2005 Aug 15. 137C(1):38-52. [Medline].

Pazzaglia UE, Beluffi G, Bonaspetti G, et al. Bone malformations in Proteus syndrome: an analysis of bone structural changes and their evolution during growth. Pediatr Radiol. 2007 Aug. 37(8):829-35. [Medline].

Happle R. Lipomatosis and partial lipohypoplasia in Proteus syndrome: a clinical clue for twin spotting?. Am J Med Genet. 1995 Apr 10. 56(3):332-3. [Medline].

Turner JT, Cohen MM Jr, Biesecker LG. Reassessment of the Proteus syndrome literature: application of diagnostic criteria to published cases. Am J Med Genet A. 2004 Oct 1. 130A(2):111-22. [Medline].

Asahina A, Fujita H, Omori T, Kai H, Yamamoto M, Mii K. Proteus syndrome complicated by multiple spinal meningiomas. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008 Nov. 33(6):729-32. [Medline].

Furquim I, Honjo R, Bae R, Andrade W, Santos M, Tannuri U. Proteus syndrome: report of a case with recurrent abdominal lipomatosis. J Pediatr Surg. 2009 Apr. 44(4):E1-3. [Medline].

Biesecker L. The challenges of Proteus syndrome: diagnosis and management. Eur J Hum Genet. 2006 Nov. 14(11):1151-7. [Medline].

Keppler-Noreuil KM, Lozier JN, Sapp JC, Biesecker LG. Characterization of thrombosis in patients with Proteus syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2017 Sep. 173 (9):2359-65. [Medline].

Bastos H, da Silva PF, de Albuquerque MA, Mattos A, Riesgo RS, Ohlweiler L. Proteus syndrome associated with hemimegalencephaly and Ohtahara syndrome: report of two cases. Seizure. 2008 Jun. 17(4):378-82. [Medline].

Sapp JC, Hu L, Zhao J, et al. Quantifying survival in patients with Proteus syndrome. Genet Med. 2017 Dec. 19 (12):1376-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].

Lacerda Lda S, Alves UD, Zanier JF, et al. Differential diagnoses of overgrowth syndromes: the most important clinical and radiological disease manifestations. Radiol Res Pract. 2014. 2014:947451. [Medline]. [Full Text].

Wieland I, Tinschert S, Zenker M. High-level somatic mosaicism of AKT1 c.49G>A mutation in skin scrapings from epidermal nevi enables non-invasive molecular diagnosis in patients with Proteus syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2013 Apr. 161A(4):889-91. [Medline].

Elsayes KM, Menias CO, Dillman JR, et al. Vascular malformation and hemangiomatosis syndromes: spectrum of imaging manifestations. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 May. 190(5):1291-9. [Medline].

Irion KL, Hocchegger B, Marchiori E, et al. Proteus syndrome: high-resolution CT and CT pulmonary densitovolumetry findings. J Thorac Imaging. 2009 Feb. 24(1):45-8. [Medline].

Hoey SE, Eastwood D, Monsell F, Kangesu L, Harper JI, Sebire NJ. Histopathological features of Proteus syndrome. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008 May. 33(3):234-8. [Medline].

Sugarman JL. Epidermal nevus syndromes. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2007 Dec. 26(4):221-30. [Medline].

Buis J, Enjolras O, Soupre V, Roman S, Vazquez MP, Picard A. 980-nm laser diode and treatment of subcutaneous mass in Proteus-like syndrome. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010 Jan. 24(1):109-11. [Medline].

Crenshaw MM, Goerlich CG, Ivey LE, et al. Orthopaedic Management of Leg-length Discrepancy in Proteus Syndrome: A Case Series. J Pediatr Orthop. 2018 Mar. 38 (3):e138-44. [Medline].

Turner J, Biesecker B, Leib J, et al. Parenting children with Proteus syndrome: experiences with, and adaptation to, courtesy stigma. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Sep 15. 143A(18):2089-97. [Medline].

Lindhurst MJ, Yourick MR, Yu Y, Savage RE, Ferrari D, Biesecker LG. Repression of AKT signaling by ARQ 092 in cells and tissues from patients with Proteus syndrome. Sci Rep. 2015 Dec 11. 5:17162. [Medline]. [Full Text].

Biesecker LG, Happle R, Mulliken JB, et al. Proteus syndrome: diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and patient evaluation. Am J Med Genet. 1999 Jun 11. 84(5):389-95. [Medline].


U.S.S. PROTEUS

USS Proteus (AS-19) was laid down 15 September 1941 at the Moore Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, Oakland, CA. She as launched 12 November 1942 and after fitting out was commissioned 31 January 1944.

Proteus was a god of the sea in in Greek mythology. The word PROTEAN has the connotations of flexibility, versatility and adaptability. USS Proteus motto paralled this. Prepared Precise and Productive.

After commisoning and final fit out, Proteus sailed for Midway Island, arriving in May 1944. There until Decemeber 1944, she tended to the US Submarine Force that was battleing the Japanese. After a stay at Pearl Harbor from December 1944 to February 1945, USS Proteus moved on to Guam where she again was on station supporting the US Submarine Force.

At wars end, USS Proteus was assigned to Japanese home island occupation duty. She was in Tokyo Bay for the Japaneses surrender ceremony. Proteus remain in Japan until November 1945 then sailed for the United States.

Homeported in New London, CT after World War II, USS Proteus operated along the East Coast of the United States before being decommissoned and placed in service on 26 September 1947. In January 1960 USS Proteus began a conversion to support Polaris Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines. The conversion at Charleston Naval Shipyard was completed in July 1960 and Proteus was placed in commission. Refresher training was conducted at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

In February 1961 Proteus deployed to Holy Loch, Scotland. She remained at Holy Loch for two years upgrading and supporting the US Atlantic Submarine Force. In 1963 she returned to Charleston, SC NSY for overhaul.

Post overhaul, USS Proteus sailed where needed in 1964. She steamed for Holy Holy in December 1963. She moved on to Rota, Spain in February 1964, returned to Charleston in June 1964, then sailed to Gaum in October, where she remained homported until 1971.

In 1971 USS Proteus entered Mare Island NSY for overhaul. After overhaul she called on Pearl Harbor and Sydney, Australia, then again took up station on Guam. With the fall of South Viet Nam in 1975, throngs of refugees flooded the South West Pacific. Proteus crew members assisted US Navy SeaBees with the construction of a massive tent city to house more than 100,000 refugees.

USS Proteus was overhauled at Long Beach NSY during 1978-79, then returned to Guam in May 1980. With the decommisioning of the final Polaris Ballistic Missle Subamrines she departed Gaum in July 1981. Proteus was then converted to General Fleet Support Tender. She delpoyed into the Indian Ocean, plying her trade of maintenance and support of the fleet at Diego Garcia Fremantle, Australia Subic Bay, P.I. and then returned in April 1982 to Guam .

Proteus made made a similar deployments from Guam, supporting Seventh Fleet vessels where needed, in October 1982, April 1983, May 1984, July 1985, February 1986, 1987, 1988, March 1989, March 1990 and March 1991.

The June 15, 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines called USS Proteus to leave Guam and help dig out the Subic Bay Naval Base and nearby towns. She remained in P.I. until August, 1991 then returned to Gaum.

USS Proteus sailed to Australia in April of 1992 on her final voyage.

Proteus was decommissioned on 30 September 1992.

The USS Proteus (AS-19) operational history and significant events of her service career follow:


History, Science and Methods

Yong Wang , Xiaoling Pan , in Encyclopedia of Food Safety , 2014

Clinical Manifestation, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

Proteus can cause gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. The ingestion of food contaminated by Proteus may contribute to the sporadic and epidemic cases of gastroenteritis, which may cause symptoms such as vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, severe nausea, diarrhea, and dehydration. The incubation period is short, usually 1–3 days. The illness duration is approximately 40 h. Sometimes, blood can be found in patients’ vomitus. Proteus mirabilis and P. penneri are often isolated from diarrheal fecal samples of gastroenteritis patients. The incidence rate of acute intestinal infection of Proteus is higher in young children as well as older and immunosuppressed persons, due to their low immunity. Proteus is thought to increase the pathogenicity of other microbes. When Proteus infection occurs together with other microbes, infant diarrhea is more severe. As a secondary pathogen, P. vulgaris has been frequently observed in coinfection with streptococci, staphylococci, Bacillus coli, Bacillus lactis aerogenes, Bacillus welchii, Bacillus diphtheriae, etc.

Infection by the genus Providencia, another member of the tribe of Proteeae, is rare. Proteus alcalifaciens, P. heimbachae, P. rettgeri, and P. rustigianii are usually related to gastroenteritis whereas P. stuartii is usually related to urinary infections. The Providencia-associated gastroenteritis leads to abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea. Some patients may have fever. Most case reports of the Providencia-associated gastroenteritis are related to fecal contamination. The common incubation period from the ingestion of contaminated food is 80–90 h. Proteus alcalifaciens has been identified as an enteric pathogen. Both in vitro cell invasion tests and animal models have proved the pathogenicity of P. alcalifaciens.

The third member of the tribe Proteeae is Morganella sp. The presence of common food spoiled by M. morganii is fish, including mackerel, marlin, mahi-mahi, tuna, and bluefish. Both Proteus spp. and M. morganii have the histidine dehydrogenase activity to produce histamine. The temperature of 15 °C is a critical point for histamine production of M. morganii. When the temperature is lower than 15 °C, the histamine production by M. morganii is significantly reduced. In general, M. morganii does not produce toxic concentration of histamine below 7 °C. The elevated level of histamine and the factors influencing histamine absorption synergistically lead to symptoms after the ingestion of spoiled food. The symptoms include headache, diarrhea, redness of the face and neck, a feeling of heat, itching, etc. The time elapsed between food intake and symptom onset ranges from minutes to 3 h. Usually, 100 mg dL −1 of histamine is the minimum level to cause symptoms, although 20 mg dL −1 of histamine may cause symptoms in some individuals. The histamine level in fresh fish is normally 1 mg dL −1 , and 50 mg dL −1 is the hazardous level. The cases of M. morganii outbreaks have been found associated with either raw fish or processed fish consumption. Therefore, cooking is not an effective way to eliminate the toxicity.

In terms of treatment, Proteus spp. have varied sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics. Most Proteus spp. are sensitive to penicillin, gentamicin, furagin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and nevigramone, but they are resistant to nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, bacitracin, cecropin, polymyxin, and colistin. The antibiotic resistance of Proteus spp. is transferred through plasmids encoding antibiotic-resistant genes. Proteus spp. have a high content of phosphate-linked 4-aminoarabinose in their LPS. The less acidic bacterial surface makes them inherently resistant to polycationic antibiotics, such as cecropin and polymyxin. Polymyxin B binds to the negatively charged lipid A portion of LPS. In P. mirabilis, l -arabinoso-4-amine substituting the ester-linked phosphate group of lipid A can lead to the resistance to polymyxin B. The first-choice antibiotic against P. mirabilis is ampicillin and the alternative antibiotics are aminoglycoside and cephalosporin. Resistance to fluoroquinolones has been seen in P. mirabilis isolates. Most P. mirabilis strains are sensitive to ampicillin and cephalosporin, but P. vulgaris and P. hauseri are not sensitive to them. The first-choice antibiotics to treat P. vulgaris and P. hauseri are cefotaxime and ceftizoxime, and the alternative antibiotics are cefoxitin and trimethoprim (TMP)-sulfamethoxazole (SMX). In addition, P. vulgaris and P. hauseri are sensitive to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, netilmicin, sulbactam, meropenem, and levofloxacin. In contrast to other Proteus spp., P. penneri is resistant to chloramphenicol. Therefore, combinations of antibiotics are more effective treatment against Proteus, such as gentamicin with carbenicillin, gentamicin with ampicillin, monomycin with ampicillin, Zosyn (piperacillin and tazobactam), and Unasyn (ampicillin and sulbactam).

Most M. morganii strains are resistant to penicillin and cephalosporin and are susceptible to aztreonam, aminoglycoside, and quinolone. Providencia is highly resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, colistin, polymyxin B, nitrofurantoin, and nalidixic acid, but it is sensitive to aminoglycoside, quinolone, carbapenem, aztreonam, and modern cephalosporin.


Proteus ScStr - History

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The third USS Proteus (AS-19) was a Fulton-class submarine tender in the United States Navy.
Proteus was laid down by the Moore Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, Oakland, California, 15 September 1941 launched 12November 1942 sponsored by Mrs. Charles M. Cooke, Jr. and commissioned 31 January 1944, Capt. Robert W. Berry in command.

After shakedown off San Diego, she stood out of San Francisco 19 March for Midway to tend submarines of Submarine Squadron 20. She arrived 3 May, and operating there until 1 December completed 51 voyage repairs and 14 refits for submarines. She returned to Pearl Harbor 4 December, and on 5 February got underway for Guam where she completed 4 voyage repairs and 24 refits by 7 August.

Assigned to occupation duty after the end of the war, Proteus rendezvoused with units of the 3rd Fleet and became the flagship of a 26-ship support group which steamed off the coast of Honshû until 26 August. On the 28th she anchored in Sagami Wan to begin supporting Submarine Squadron 20 as it demilitarized surrendered Japanese submarines, human torpedoes,

torpedo carrying boats, and suicide boats at Yokosuka and other locations in the Sagami Wan-Tokyo Bay areas. Future actors Tony Curtis - whose birth name was Bernard Schwartz - and Larry Storch were aboard Proteus at Tokyo Bay in August-September 1945 - and watched much of the formal surrender activities aboard USS Missouri from Proteus's signal bridge.
Also assigned to repair Japanese submarines, she remained until 1 November, when she headed home.

USS Proteus being lengthened at Charleston in 1959.

Transiting the Panama Canal on 6 December, she reached New London 16 December. A trip to the Canal Zone preceded cold weather operations with SubRon 8 at NS Argentia, Newfoundland during November, after which she returned to New London.

Decommissioned and placed in service 26 September 1947, she provided vital service to the submarine base at New London until January 1959. On the 15th she entered Charleston Naval Shipyard for conversion to a tender for the Polaris Fleet

Ballistic Missile submarines, including the addition of a 44-foot section amidships.

Proteus recommissioned 8 July 1960, and after shakedown at Guantanamo Bay, she accomplished her first SSBN refit 20

January&ndash21 February at New London. She then crossed to Holy Loch, Scotland, arriving 3 March 1961. There for the next two years she completed 38 refits of Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines, for which she received the Navy Unit Commendation.

Back at Charleston for overhaul in 1963, on 2 January 1964 she resumed operations at Holy Loch to provide support and refits to the Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines of Submarine Squadron 14.
On 24 February Proteus arrived at Rota, Spain, to establish the second overseas replenishment site for Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines, returning to Holy Loch 12 April. On 29 June she put in at Charleston and on 16 October was en route to Guam. Arriving Apra Harbor 29 November, she established the third overseas replenishment site for the Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines. She continued to operate at Apra Harbor and in the Pacific for the next seven years, taking a five-month time off for self-overhaul in 1968 - relieved by Hunley (AS-31).

Transfer of a Polaris missile between Proteus and USS Patrick Henry at Holy Loch, Scotland, in 1961. In 1971, after a brief R&R visit to Pearl Harbor, Proteus proceeded to Mare Island for an extensive overhaul, including a significant propulsion upgrade. A boiler accident forced her to stay at Ford Island, Hawaii for two months then a shake- down was accomplished out of Pearl Harbor, and after an R&R port call to Sydney Australia, Proteus returned to Apra Harbor for the now routine exchange with Hunley.

The exchange was completed by mid-January, 1973, and Proteus resumed her duties. In 1974 personnel from SRF, Guam, removed the remaining 5-inch gun turret and munitions were removed as unnecessary for her primary mission - leaving only the four 20mm mounts as her main defensive weapons. When Saigon fell in 1975, thousands of Vietnamese fled their country, and many made the crossing to Guam - some 100,000 of them. In a massive undertaking called "Operation New Life" - every able-bodied individual who could be spared was "volunteered" to help provide facilities to care for this "tidal wave" of humanity. As part of that effort - over 1,000 officers and men from Proteus worked with Seabee construction personnel to erect the refugee city "Tent City" on Orote Point, Guam - leaving only a hand-picked skeleton crew of individuals aboard to see to her safety and security as well as handle emergencies from the boats that were in. But for that week, Proteus was out of "business as usual" - for which the Secretary of the Navy awarded Proteus her second Meritorious Unit Commendation in 1975 and she (along with other participating Navy Units) were awarded the first award of the Navy Humanitarian ServiceMedal (established by Executive Order January 1977 for actions beginning 1 April 1975).
In 1976 Proteus received her third consecutive Engineering "E" and second Humanitarian Medal for Typhoon Pamela Disaster Relief and the Battle Efficiency "E" in 1978. That year, Proteus was sent to overhaul at Long Beach Naval Shipyard rather than the expected retirement and decommissioning. In 1980, Proteus was home-ported at Apra Harbor, Guam, where her missile silos had been deactivated and the missiles removed and converted to tender submarines. On 21 October 1981, the Proteus was awarded the Battle "E" Efficiency. In November 1981, Proteus deployed on a six month deployment to Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean. December 22, 1981, Proteus crossed the equator and received Neptunis Rex and Davy Jones aboard for Shellback ceremonies. In March 1982 while Proteus was still in Diego Garcia, her Majesty's Naval vessel HMS Sheffield docked with Proteus to requisition required parts before deploying to the Falkland Islands War where she was sunk on 10 May 1982 after Argentine air attack on 4 May 1982,

Proteus was the last friendly ship to have any contact with Sheffield before the sinking. Proteus returned to Guam May of 1982, crossing the equator a second time.

Proteus was decommissioned again in September 1992 and soon thereafter struck from the Naval Register.

1994 Proteus was re-commissioned yet again as a Berthing Auxiliary and placed in service at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington. At this time Proteus took on the new naval designation Miscellaneous Unclassified IX-518.
In September 1999 the ship was placed out of active service and laid up at the National Defense Reserve Fleet at Suisun Bay, California. Late 2007 she was towed to Esco Marine, Brownsville, Texas for scrapping which was completed in early 2008.

Namesake: Proteus
Builder: Moore Dry Dock Company
Laid down: 15 September 1941
Launched: 12 November 1942
Commissioned: 31 January 1944
Decommissioned: 26 September 1947

Recommissioned: 8 July 1960
Decommissioned: September 1992

Recommissioned: 1994, reclassified IX-518
Decommissioned: September 1999
Struck: 13 March 2001
Fate: Scrapped, 2007
General characteristics (as built)
Class & type: Fulton-class submarine tender
Displacement: 9,734 long tons (9,890 t)
Length: 529 ft 6 in (161.39 m)
Beam: 73 ft 4 in (22.35 m)
Propulsion: diesel-electric
Speed: 18.5 knots (34.3 km/h 21.3 mph)
Complement: 1,487
Armament: 4 × 5"/38 caliber guns
8 × 40 mm guns
23 × 20 mm guns

Commanding Officers, USS Proteus AS-19

Captain Robert W. Berry 31 January 1944 - 12 September 1944
Captain Charles N. Day 12 September 1944 - 4 September 1945
Captain James A. Jordan 4 September 1945 - 27 April 1947
Captain Richard C. Lake 27 April 1947 - 26 September 1947
Captain Richard B. Laning 8 July 1960 - 25 August 1962
Captain Raymond F. Dubois 25 August 1962 - 7 September 1963
Captain Lindsay C. McCarty 7 September 1963 - 16 January 1965
Captain Robert H. Gulmon 16 January 1965 - 14 July 1966
Captain Daniel C. Clements 14 July 1966 - 6 September 1967
Captain Fred T. Berry 6 September 1967 - 6 August 1968
Captain R. M. Weidman Jr. 6 August 1968 - 10 April 1970
Captain Frank A. Thurtell 10 April 1970 - 21 September 1971
Captain John T Rigsbee 21 September 1971 - 6 March 1974
Captain Marvin S. Greer Jr. 6 March 1974 - 8 June 1976
Captain Clifton G. Foster 8 June 1976 - 6 June 1978
Captain Thomas R. Fox 6 June 1978 - 7 August 1980
Captain Michael C. Colley 7 August 1980 - 18 June 1982
Captain J. Stephen Perry 18 June 1982 - 17 July 1984
Captain Herndon A. Oliver III 17 July 1984 - 10 November 1986
Captain Paul W. Middents 10 November 1986 - 1 September 1988
Captain Edward R. Losure Jr. 1 September 1988 - 16 August 1990
Captain William A. Evans IV 16 August 1990 - 11 July 1992


Throughout USS PROTEUS (AS 19) 48-year history, many awards have been bestowed on her.
The following is a listing of some of those awards:

Meritorious Unit Citations 1963, 1975, 1982
Humanitarian Service Medal
Golden Anchor 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985
Battle Efficiency "E" 1978, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1988
Engineering RED "E" 1974, 1975, 1976, 1985


Charles Proteus Steinmetz

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Charles Proteus Steinmetz, original name Karl August Rudolf Steinmetz, (born April 9, 1865, Breslau, Prussia—died Oct. 26, 1923, Schenectady, N.Y., U.S.), German-born American electrical engineer whose ideas on alternating current systems helped inaugurate the electrical era in the United States.

At birth Steinmetz was afflicted with a physical deformity, hunchback, and as a youth he showed an unusual capability in mathematics, physics, and classical literature. On graduating from the gymnasium with honours, he entered the University of Breslau in 1883. There he joined a student socialist club, which was banned by the government after becoming affiliated with the German Social Democrats. When some of his fellow party members were arrested, Steinmetz took over the editorship of the party newspaper, “The People’s Voice.” One of the articles he wrote was considered inflammatory the police began a crackdown on the paper, and Steinmetz had to flee Breslau (1888). After a short stay in Zürich he immigrated to the United States in 1889, traveling by steerage. He soon obtained a job with a small electrical firm owned by Rudolf Eickemeyer in Yonkers, N.Y. At about the same time, Steinmetz Americanized his first name to Charles and substituted Proteus, a university nickname, for his two middle names.

Under the tutelage of his employer, Steinmetz became increasingly absorbed in the practical aspects of electrical engineering. He established a small laboratory at the factory, where he did much of his scientific research. Steinmetz’ experiments on power losses in the magnetic materials used in electrical machinery led to his first important work, the law of hysteresis. This law deals with the power loss that occurs in all electrical devices when magnetic action is converted to unusable heat. Until that time the power losses in motors, generators, transformers, and other electrically powered machines could be known only after they were built. Once Steinmetz had found the law governing hysteresis loss, engineers could calculate and minimize losses of electric power due to magnetism in their designs before starting the construction of such machines.

In 1892 Steinmetz gave two papers before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers on his new law concerning hysteresis loss. His work was immediately recognized as a classic by the few who understood it, and the constant he calculated for this loss has remained a part of electrical engineering vocabulary. Thus, Steinmetz’ reputation was assured at the age of 27.

His second contribution was a practical method for making calculations concerning alternating current circuits. This method was an example of using mathematical aids for engineering the design of machinery and power lines, so that the performance of the electrical system could be predicted in advance without the necessity of going through the expensive and uncertain process of building the system first and then testing it for its efficiency. Steinmetz developed a symbolic method of calculating alternating-current phenomena and in so doing simplified an extremely complicated and barely understood field so that the average engineer could work with alternating current. This accomplishment was largely responsible for the rapid progress made in the commercial introduction of alternating-current apparatus.

Steinmetz’ method of calculation was presented to an uncomprehending audience at the International Electrical Congress in 1893. His book Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena (coauthored with Ernst J. Berg in 1897) was read and understood by only a very few. The problem that Steinmetz faced was that electrical engineers were not taught enough mathematics to understand his new mathematical treatment of problems using complex numbers. To educate the electrical engineering profession, he published several textbooks, including Engineering Mathematics (1911), and expanded his original 1897 book into three separate volumes. Gradually, through his writing, lecturing, and teaching, his method of calculation with complex numbers was universally adopted in work with alternating currents.

In 1893 the newly formed General Electric Company purchased Eickemeyer’s company, primarily for his patents, but Steinmetz was considered one of its major assets. At General Electric, Steinmetz gained an expanded opportunity for research and implementation of his ideas. He was assigned to the new calculating department, the first job of which was to work on the company’s proposal for building the generators at the new Niagara Falls power station. In 1894 the General Electric Company transferred its operations to Schenectady, N.Y., and Steinmetz was made head of the calculating department. He at once began to indoctrinate the engineers with his method of calculating alternating-current circuits.

Steinmetz’ third major scientific achievement was in the study and theory of electrical transients—that is, changes in electrical circuits of very short duration. A prime example of this phenomenon is lightning, and Steinmetz’ investigation of lightning phenomena resulted in his theory of traveling waves and opened the way for his development of devices to protect high-power transmission lines from lightning bolts. In the course of this work he also designed a generator that produced a discharge of 10,000 amperes and more than 100,000 volts, equivalent to a power of more than 1,000,000 horsepower for 1/100,000 of a second. This was his last major project at the General Electric Company, where he had become head of the engineering consulting department.

In his later years Steinmetz also engaged in public affairs to a considerable degree, serving as president of the Board of Education of Schenectady, N.Y., and as president of the city council. He served as president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1901–02.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Richard Pallardy, Research Editor.


Watch the video: Battery Bank Capacity Meter using an Arduino. A simulation in Proteous