The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, side A, 3rd register

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, side A, 3rd register


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Campaigns Edit

Shalmaneser began a campaign against Urartian Kingdom and reported that in 858 BC he demolished the city of Sugunia and then in 853 BC also Araškun. Both cities are assumed to have been capitals of the Kingdom before Tushpa became a center for the Urartians. [2] In 853 BC, a coalition was formed by 11 states, mainly by Hadadezer (Hadad-ezer) the Aramean king of Damascus, Irhuleni king of Hamath, Ahab king of Israel, Gindibu king of the Arabs, and some other rulers who fought the Assyrian king at the Battle of Qarqar. The result of the battle was not decisive, and Shalmaneser III had to fight his enemies several times again in the coming years, which eventually resulted in the occupation of The Levant (modern Syria and Lebanon) and Arabia by the Assyrian empire.

In 851, following a rebellion in Babylon, Shalmaneser led a campaign against Marduk-bēl-ušate younger brother of the king, Marduk-zakir-shumi I, who was an ally of Shalmaneser's. [3] In the second year of the campaign, Marduk-bēl-ušate was forced to retreat and was killed. A record of these events was made on the Black Obelisk:

In the eighth year of my reign, Marduk-bêl-usâte, the younger brother, revolted against Marduk-zâkir-šumi, king of Karduniaš, and they divided the land in its entirety. In order to avenge Marduk-zâkir-šumi, I marched out and captured Mê-Turnat. In the ninth year of my reign, I marched against Akkad a second time. I besieged Ganannate. As for Marduk-bêl-usâte, the terrifying splendor of Assur and Marduk overcame him and he went up into the mountains to save his life. I pursued him. I cut down with the sword Marduk-bêl-usâte and the rebel army officers who were with him.

Against Israel Edit

In 841 BC, Shalmaneser campaigned against Hadadezer's successor Hazael, forcing him to take refuge within the walls of his capital. [6] While Shalmaneser was unable to capture Damascus, he devastated its territory, and Jehu of Israel (whose ambassadors are represented on the Black Obelisk now in the British Museum), together with the Phoenician cities, prudently sent tribute to him in perhaps 841 BC. [7] Babylonia had already been conquered, including the areas occupied by migrant Chaldaean, Sutean and Aramean tribes, and the Babylonian king had been put to death. [8]

Against Tibareni Edit

In 836 BC, Shalmaneser sent an expedition against the Tibareni (Tabal) which was followed by one against Cappadocia, and in 832 BC came another campaign against Urartu. [9] In the following year, age required the king to hand over the command of his armies to the Tartan (turtānu commander-in-chief) Dayyan-Assur, and six years later, Nineveh and other cities revolted against him under his rebel son Assur-danin-pal. Civil war continued for two years but the rebellion was at last crushed by Shamshi-Adad V, another son of Shalmaneser. Shalmaneser died soon afterwards.

Later campaigns Edit

Despite the rebellion later in his reign, Shalmanesar had proven capable of expanding the frontiers of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, stabilising its hold over the Khabur and Mountainous frontier region of the Zagros, contested with Urartu. His reign saw the first appearance in history of the camel-mounted Arabs.

His reign is significant to Biblical studies because two of his monuments name rulers from Hebrew Bible. [10] The Black Obelisk names Jehu son of Omri (although Jehu was misidentified as a son of Omri). [10] The Kurkh Monolith names king Ahab, in reference to the Battle of Qarqar.

He had built a palace at Kalhu (Biblical Calah, modern Nimrud), and left several editions of the royal annals recording his military campaigns, the last of which is engraved on the Black Obelisk from Calah.

The Black Obelisk is a significant artifact from his reign. It is a black limestone, bas-relief sculpture from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq. It is the most complete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, and is historically significant because it displays the earliest ancient depiction of an Israelite. On the top and the bottom of the reliefs there is a long cuneiform inscription recording the annals of Shalmaneser III. It lists the military campaigns which the king and his commander-in-chief headed every year, until the thirty-first year of reign. Some features might suggest that the work had been commissioned by the commander-in-chief, Dayyan-Ashur.

The second register from the top includes the earliest surviving picture of an Israelite: the Biblical Jehu, king of Israel. [11] Jehu severed Israel's alliances with Phoenicia and Judah, and became subject to Assyria. It describes how Jehu brought or sent his tribute in or around 841 BC. [12] [10] The caption above the scene, written in Assyrian cuneiform, can be translated:

"The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears." [10]

It was erected as a public monument in 825 BC at a time of civil war. It was discovered by archaeologist Sir Austen Henry Layard in 1846.


The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, side A, 3rd register - History

* Library collection: "World's Greatest Literature"
* Published work: "Babylonian and Assyrian Literature"
* Translator: Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A.
* Publisher: P. F. Collier & Son, New York
* Copyright: Colonial Press, 1901

The text is indexed by lines, and every 5th line is marked with a HTML anchor for referencing.

This inscription is engraved on an obelisk of black marble, five feet in height, found by Mr. Layard in the centre of the Mound at Nimroud, and now in the British Museum. Each of its four sides is divided into five compartments of sculpture representing the tribute brought to the Assyrian King by vassal princes, Jehu of Israel being among the number. Shalmaneser, whose annals and conquests are recorded upon it, was the son of Assur-natsir-pal, and died in 823 B.C., after a reign of thirty-five years. A translation of the inscription was one of the first achievements of Assyrian decipherment, and was made by Sir. H. Rawlinson and Dr. Hincks shortly afterward (in 1851) succeeded in reading the name of Jehu in it. M. Oppert translated the inscription in his "Histoire des Empires de Chaldee et d'Assyrie," and M. Menant has given another rendering of it in his "Annales des Rois d'Assyrie" (1874). A copy of the text will be found in Layard's "Inscriptions in the Cuneiform Character" (1851).

Note: Jehu of Israel is not actually in the text: it is in the Epigraphs accompanying the sculptures as "Yahua son of Khumri".

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
(Pages 238-249)

[1] Assur, the great Lord, the King of all
[2] the great gods Anu, King of the spirits of heaven
[3] and the spirits of earth, the god, Lord of the world Bel
[4] the Supreme, Father of the gods, the Creator
[5] Hea, King of the deep, determiner of destinies,
[6] the King of crowns, drinking in brilliance
[7] Rimmon, the crowned hero, Lord of canals the Sun-god
[8] the Judge of heaven and earth, the urger on of all
[9] (Merodach), Prince of the gods, Lord of battles Adar, the terrible,
[10] (Lord) of the spirits of heaven and the spirits of earth, the exceeding strong god Nergal,
[11] the powerful (god), King of the battle Nebo, the bearer of the high sceptre,
[12] the god, the Father above Beltis, the wife of Bel, mother of the (great) gods
[13] Istar, sovereign of heaven and earth, who the face of heroism perfectest
[14] the great (gods), determining destinies, making great my kingdom.
[15] (I am) Shalmaneser, King of multitudes of men, prince (and) hero of Assur, the strong King,
[16] King of all the four zones of the Sun (and) of multitudes of men, the marcher over
[17] the whole world Son of Assur-natsir-pal, the supreme hero, who his heroism over the gods
[18] has made good and has caused all the world to kiss his feet

[19] the noble offspring of Tiglath-Adar
[20] who has laid his yoke upon all lands hostile to him, and
[21] has swept (them) like a whirlwind.
[22] At the beginning of my reign, when on the throne
[23] of royalty mightily I had seated myself, the chariots
[24] of my host I collected. Into the lowlands of the country of 'Sime'si
[25] I descended. The city of Aridu, the strong city
[26] of Ninni, I took. In my first year
[27] the Euphrates in its flood I crossed. To the sea of the setting sun
[28] I went. My weapons on the sea I rested. Victims
[29] for my gods I took. To mount Amanus I went up.
[30] Logs of cedar-wood and pine-wood I cut. To
[31] the country of Lallar I ascended. An image of my Royalty in the midst (of it) I erected.
[32] In my second year to the city of Tel-Barsip I approached. The cities
[33] of Akhuni the son of Adin I captured. In his city I shut him up. The Euphrates
[34] in its flood I crossed. The city of Dabigu, a choice city of the Hittites
[35] together with the cities which (were) dependent upon it I captured. In my third year Akhuni
[36] the son of Adin, from the face of my mighty weapons fled, and the city of Tel-Barsip,

[37] his royal city, he fortified. The Euphrates I crossed.
[38] The city unto Assyria I restored. I took it. (The town) which (is) on the further side
[39] of the Euphrates which (is) upon the river 'Sagurri, which the Kings
[40] of the Hittites call the city of Pitru,
[41] for myself I took. At my return
[42] into the lowlands of the country of Alzi I descended. The country of Alzi I conquered.
[43] The countries of Dayaeni (and) Elam, (and) the city of Arzascunu, the royal city
[44] of Arame of the country of the Armenians, the country of Gozan (and) the country of Khupuscia.
[45] During the eponymy of Dayan-Assur from the city of Nineveh I departed. The Euphrates
[46] in its upper part I crossed. After Akhuni the son of Adin I went.
[47] The heights on the banks of the Euphrates as his stronghold he made.
[48] The mountains I attacked, I captured. Akhuni with his gods, his chariots,
[49] his horses, his sons (and) his daughters I carried away. To my city Assur
[50] I brought (them). In that same year the country of Kullar I crossed. To the country of Zamua
[51] of Bit-Ani I went down. The cities of Nigdiara of the city of the Idians
[52] (and) Nigdima I captured. In my fifth year to the country of Kasyari I ascended.
[53] The strongholds I captured. Elkhitti of the Serurians (in) his city I shut up. His tribute
[54] to a large amount I received. In my sixth year to the cities on the banks of the river Balikhi

[55] I approached. Gi'ammu, their Governor, I smote.
[56] To the city of Tel-abil-akhi I descended.
[57] The Euphrates in its upper part I crossed.
[58] The tribute of the Kings of the Hittites
[59] all of them I received. In those days Rimmon-idri
[60] of Damascus, Irkhulina of Hamath,. and the Kings
[61] of the Hittites and of the sea-coasts to the forces of each other
[62] trusted, and to make war and battle
[63] against me came. By the command of Assur, the great Lord, my Lord,
[64] with them I fought. A destruction of them I made.
[65] Their chariots, their war-carriages, their war-material I took from them.
[66] 20,500 of their fighting men with arrows I slew.
[67] In my seventh year to the cities of Khabini of the city of Tel-Abni I went.
[68] The City of Tel-Abni, his stronghold, together with the cities which (were) dependent on it I captured.
[69] To the head of the river, the springs of the Tigris, the place where the waters rise, I went.
[70] The weapons of Assur in the midst (of it) I rested. Sacrifices for my gods I took. Feasts and rejoicing
[71] I made. An image of my Royalty of large size I constructed. The laws of Assur my Lord, the records
[72] of my victories, whatsoever in the world I had done, in the midst of it I wrote. In the middle (of the country) I set (it) up.

[73] In my eighth year, Merodach-suma-iddin King of Gan-Dunias
[74] did Merodach-bila-yu'sate his foster-brother against him rebel
[75] strongly had he fortified (the land). To exact punishment
[76] against Merodach-suma-iddin I went. The city of the waters of the Dhurnat I took.
[77] In my ninth campaign a second time to the land of Accad I went.
[78] The city of Gana-nate I besieged. Merodach-bila-yu'sate exceeding fear
[79] of Assur (and) Merodach overwhelmed, and to save his life to
[80] the mountains he ascended. After him I rode. Merodach-bila-yu'sate (and) the officers
[81] the rebels who (were) with him (with) arrows I slew. To the great fortresses
[82] I went. Sacrifices in Babylon, Borsippa, (and) Cuthah I made.
[83] Thanksgivings to the great gods I offered up. To the country of Kaldu I descended. Their cities I captured.
[84] The tribute of the Kings of the country of Kaldu I received. The greatness of my arms as far as the sea overwhelmed.
[85] In my tenth year for the eighth time the Euphrates I crossed. The cities of 'Sangara of the city of the Carchemishians I captured.
[86] To the cities of Arame I approached. Arne his royal city with 100 of his (other) towns I captured.
[87] In my eleventh year for the ninth time the Euphrates I crossed. Cities to a countless number I captured. To the cities of the Hittites
[88] of the land of the Hamathites I went down. Eighty-nine cities I took. Rimmon-idri of Damascus (and) twelve of the Kings of the Hittites
[89] with one another's forces strengthened themselves. A destruction of them I made. In my twelfth campaign for the tenth time the Euphrates I crossed.
[90] To the land of Pagar-khubuna I went. Their spoil I carried away. In my thirteenth year to the country of Yaeti I ascended.
[91] Their spoil I carried away. In my fourteenth year the country I assembled the Euphrates I crossed. Twelve Kings against me had come.
[92] I fought. A destruction of them I made. In my fifteenth year among the sources of the Tigris (and) the Euphrates I went. An image
[93] of my Majesty in their hollows I erected. In my sixteenth year the waters of the Zab I crossed. To the country of Zimri
[94] I went. Merodach-mudammik King of the land of Zimru to save his life (the mountains) ascended. His treasure
[95] his army (and) his gods to Assyria I brought. Yan'su son of Khanban to the kingdom over them I raised.

[96] In my seventeenth year the Euphrates I crossed. To the land of Amanus I ascended. Logs
[97] of cedar I cut. In my eighteenth year for the sixteenth time the Euphrates I crossed. Hazael
[98] of Damascus to battle came. 1,221 of his chariots, 470 of his war-carriages with
[99] his camp I took from him. In my nineteenth campaign for the eighteenth time the Euphrates I crossed. To the land of Amanus
[100] I ascended. Logs of cedar I cut. In my 20th year for the 20th time the Euphrates
[101] I crossed. To the land of Kahue I went down. Their cities I captured. Their spoil
[102] I carried off. In my 21st campaign, for the 21st time the Euphrates I crossed. To the cities
[103] of Hazael of Damascus I went. Four of his fortresses I took. The tribute of the Tyrians,
[104] the Zidonians (and) the Gebalites I received. In my 22d campaign for the 22d time the Euphrates
[105] I crossed. To the country of Tabalu I went down. In those days (as regards) the 24
[106] Kings of the country of Tabalu their wealth I received. To conquer
[107] the mines of silver, of salt and of stone for sculpture I went. In my 23d year
[108] the Euphrates I crossed. The city of Uetas, his strong city,
[109] (which belonged) to Lalla of the land of the Milidians I captured. The Kings of the country of Tabalu
[110] had set out. Their tribute I received. In my 24th year, the lower Zab
[111] I crossed. The land of Khalimmur I passed through. To the land of Zimru
[112] I went down. Yan'su King of the Zimri from the face
[113] of my mighty weapons fled and to save his life
[114] ascended (the mountains). The cities of 'Sikhisatakh, Bit-Tamul, Bit-Sacci
[115] (and) Bit-Sedi, his strong cities, I captured. His fighting men I slew.
[116] His spoil I carried away. The cities I threw down, dug up, (and) with fire burned.
[117] The rest of them to the mountains ascended. The peaks of the mountains
[118] I attacked, I captured. Their fighting men I slew. Their spoil (and) their goods
[119] I caused to be brought down. From the country of Zimru I departed. The tribute of 27 Kings
[120] of the country of Par'sua I received. From the country of Par'sua I departed. To
[121] the strongholds of the country of the Amadai, (and) the countries of Arazias (and) Kharkhar I went down.
[122] The cities of Cua-cinda, Khazzanabi, Ermul,
[123] (and) Cin-ablila with the cities which were dependent on them I captured. Their fighting men

[124] I slew. Their spoil I carried away. The cities I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire. An image of my Majesty
[125] in the country of Kharkhara I set up. Yan'su son of Khaban with his abundant treasures
[126] his gods, his sons, his daughters, his soldiers in large numbers I carried off. To Assyria I brought (them). In my 25th campaign
[127] the Euphrates at its flood I crossed. The tribute of the Kings of the Hittites, all of them, I received. The country of Amanus
[128] I traversed. To the cities of Cati of the country of the Kahuians I descended. The city of Timur, his strong city
[129] I besieged, I captured. Their fighting men I slew. Its spoil I carried away. The cities to a countless number I threw down, dug up,
[130] (and) burned with fire. On my return, the city of Muru, the strong city of Arame the son of Agu'si,
[131] (as) a possession for myself I took. Its entrance-space I marked out. A palace, the seat of my Majesty, in the middle (of it) I founded.
[132] In my 26th year for the seventh time the country of the Amanus I traversed. For the fourth time to the cities of Cati
[133] of the country of the Kahuians I went. The city of Tanacun, the strong city of Tulca I approached. Exceeding fear
[134] of Assur my Lord overwhelmed him and (when) he had come out my feet he took. His hostages I took. Silver, gold,
[135] iron, oxen, (and) sheep, (as) his tribute I received. From the city of Tanacun I departed. To the country of Lamena
[136] I went. The men collected themselves. An inaccessible mountain they occupied. The peak of the mountain I assailed,
[137] I took. Their fighting men I slew. Their spoil, their oxen, their sheep, from the midst of the mountain I brought down.
[138] Their cities I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire. To the city of Khazzi I went. My feet they took. Silver (and) gold,
[139] their tribute, I received. Cirri, the brother of Cati to the sovereignty over them
[140] I set. On my return to the country of Amanus I ascended. Beams of cedar I cut,
[141] I removed, to my city Assur I brought. In my 27th year the chariots of my armies I mustered. Dayan-Assur
[142] the Tartan, the Commander of the wide-spreading army, at the head of my army to the country of Armenia I urged,
[143] I sent. To Bit-Zamani he descended. Into the low ground to the city of Ammas he went down. The river Arzane he crossed.
[144] 'Seduri of the country of the Armenians heard, and to the strength of his numerous host
[145] he trusted and to make conflict (and) battle against me he came. With him I fought.
[146] A destruction of him I made. With the flower of his youth his broad fields I filled. In my 28th year
[147] when in the city of Calah I was stopping news had been brought (me, that) men of the Patinians
[148] Lubarni their Lord had slain (and) 'Surri (who was) not heir to the throne to the kingdom had raised.
[149] Dayan-Assur the Tartan, the Commander of the widespreading army at the head of my host (and) my camp
[150] I urged, I sent. The Euphrates in its flood he crossed. In the city of Cinalua his royal city
[151] a slaughter he made. (As for) 'Surri the usurper, exceeding fear of Assur my Lord
[152] overwhelmed him, and the death of his destiny he went. The men of the country of the Patinians from before the sight of my mighty weapons

[153] fled, and the children of 'Surri together with the soldiers, the rebels, (whom) they had taken they delivered to me.
[154] Those soldiers on stakes I fixed. 'Sa'situr of the country of Uzza my feet took. To the kingdom
[155] over them I placed (him). Silver, gold, lead, bronze, iron, (and) the horns of wild bulls to a countless number I received.
[156] An image of my Majesty of great size I made. In the city of Cinalua his royal city in the temple of his gods I set it up. In
[157] my 29th year (my) army (and) camp I urged, I sent. To the country of Cirkhi I ascended. Their cities I threw down,
[158] dug up, (and) burned with fire. Their country like a thunderstorm I swept. Exceeding
[159] fear over them I cast. In my 30th year when in the city of Calah I was stopping, Dayan-Assur
[160] the Tartan, the Commander of the wide-spreading army at the head of my army I urged, I sent. The river Zab
[161] he crossed. To the midst of the cities of the city of Khupusca he approached. The tribute of Datana
[162] of the city of the Khupuscians I received. From the midst of the cities of the Khupuscians
[163] I departed. To the midst of the cities of Maggubbi of the country of the Madakhirians he approached. The tribute
[164] I received. From the midst of the cities of the country of the Madakhirians he departed. To the midst of the cities of Udaci
[165] of the country of the Mannians he approached. Udaci of the country of the Mannians from before the sight of my mighty weapons
[166] fled, and the city of Zirta, his royal city, he abandoned. To save his life he ascended (the mountains).
[167] After him I pursued. His oxen, his sheep, his spoil, to a countless amount I brought back. His cities
[168] I threw down, dug up, (and) burned with fire. From the country of the Mannians he departed. To the cities of Sulu'sunu of the country of Kharru
[169] he approached. The city of Mairsuru, his royal city, together with the cities which depended on it he captured. (To) Sulu'sunu
[170] together with his sons mercy I granted. To his country I restored him. A payment (and) tribute of horses I imposed.
[171] My yoke upon him I placed. To the city of Surdira he approached. The tribute of Arta-irri
[172] of the city of the Surdirians I received. To the country of Par'sua I went down. The tribute of the Kings
[173] of the country of Par'sua I received. (As for) the rest of the country of Par'sua which did not reverence Assur, its cities
[174] I captured. Their spoil, their plunder to Assyria I brought. In my 31st year, the second time, the cyclical-feast
[175] of Assur and Rimmon I had inaugurated. At the time while I was stopping in the city of Calah, Dayan-Assur
[176] the Tartan, the Commander of my wide-spreading army, at the head of my army (and) my camp I urged, I sent.
[177] To the cities of Data of the country of Khupusca he approached. The tribute I received.
[178] To the city of Zapparia, a stronghold of the country of Muzatsira, I went. The city of Zapparia together with
[179] forty-six cities of the city of the Muzatsirians I captured. Up to the borders of the country of the Armenians
[180] I went. Fifty of their cities I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire. To the country of Guzani I went down. The tribute
[181] of Upu of the country of the Guzanians, of the country of the Mannians, of the country of the Buririans, of the country of the Kharranians,
[182] of the country of the Sasganians, of the country of the Andians, (and) of the country of the Kharkhanians, oxen, sheep, (and) horses
[183] trained to the yoke I received. To the cities of the country of . . . I went down. The city of Perria
[184] (and) the city of Sitivarya, its strongholds, together with 22 cities which depended upon it, I threw down, dug up
[185] (and) burned with fire. Exceeding fear over them I cast. To the cities of the Parthians he went.
[186] The cities of Bustu, Sala-khamanu (and) Cini-khamanu, fortified towns, together with 23 cities
[187] which depended upon them I captured. Their fighting-men I slew. Their spoil I carried off. To the country of Zimri I went down.
[188] Exceeding fear of Assur (and) Merodach overwhelmed them. Their cities they abandoned. To
[189] inaccessible mountains they ascended. Two hundred and fifty of their cities I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire.
[190] Into the lowground of Sime'si at the head of the country of Khalman I went down.

The Epigraphs accompanying the sculptures

[1] The tribute of 'Su'a of the country of the Guzanians: silver, gold, lead, articles of bronze, sceptres for the King's hand, horses (and) camels with double backs: I received.
[2] The tribute of Yahua son of Khumri: silver, gold, bowls of gold, vessels of gold, goblets of gold, pitchers of gold, lead, sceptres for the King's hand, (and) staves: I received.
[3] The tribute of the country of Muzri: camels with double backs, an ox of the river 'Saceya, horses, wild asses, elephants, (and) apes: I received.
[4] The tribute of Merodach-pal-itstsar of the country of the 'Sukhians: silver, gold, pitchers of gold, tusks of the wild bull, staves, antimony, garments of many colors, (and) linen: I received.
[5] The tribute of Garparunda of the country of the Patinians: silver, gold, lead, bronze, gums, articles of bronze, tusks of wild bulls, (and) ebony: I received.


The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, side A, 3rd register - History

Note: Jehu of Israel is not actually in the text: it is in the Epigraphs accompanying the sculptures as "Yahua son of Khumri".
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
(Pages 238-249)
Face A
[1] Assur, the great Lord, the King of all

[2] the great gods Anu, King of the spirits of heaven
[3] and the spirits of earth, the god, Lord of the world Bel
[4] the Supreme, Father of the gods, the Creator
[5] Hea, King of the deep, determiner of destinies,
[6] the King of crowns, drinking in brilliance
[7] Rimmon, the crowned hero, Lord of canals the Sun-god
[8] the Judge of heaven and earth, the urger on of all
[9] (Merodach), Prince of the gods, Lord of battles Adar, the terrible,
[10] (Lord) of the spirits of heaven and the spirits of earth, the exceeding strong god Nergal,
[11] the powerful (god), King of the battle Nebo, the bearer of the high sceptre,
[12] the god, the Father above Beltis, the wife of Bel, mother of the (great) gods
[13] Istar, sovereign of heaven and earth, who the face of heroism perfectest
[14] the great (gods), determining destinies, making great my kingdom.
[15] (I am) Shalmaneser, King of multitudes of men, prince (and) hero of Assur, the strong King,
[16] King of all the four zones of the Sun (and) of multitudes of men, the marcher over
[17] the whole world Son of Assur-natsir-pal, the supreme hero, who his heroism over the gods
[18] has made good and has caused all the world to kiss his feet
Face B

[19] the noble offspring of Tiglath-Adar
[20] who has laid his yoke upon all lands hostile to him, and
[21] has swept (them) like a whirlwind.
[22] At the beginning of my reign, when on the throne
[23] of royalty mightily I had seated myself, the chariots
[24] of my host I collected. Into the lowlands of the country of 'Sime'si
[25] I descended. The city of Aridu, the strong city
[26] of Ninni, I took. In my first year
[27] the Euphrates in its flood I crossed. To the sea of the setting sun
[28] I went. My weapons on the sea I rested. Victims
[29] for my gods I took. To mount Amanus I went up.
[30] Logs of cedar-wood and pine-wood I cut. To
[31] the country of Lallar I ascended. An image of my Royalty in the midst (of it) I erected.
[32] In my second year to the city of Tel-Barsip I approached. The cities
[33] of Akhuni the son of Adin I captured. In his city I shut him up. The Euphrates
[34] in its flood I crossed. The city of Dabigu, a choice city of the Hittites
[35] together with the cities which (were) dependent upon it I captured. In my third year Akhuni
[36] the son of Adin, from the face of my mighty weapons fled, and the city of Tel-Barsip,
Face C

[37] his royal city, he fortified. The Euphrates I crossed.

[38] The city unto Assyria I restored. I took it. (The town) which (is) on the further side
[39] of the Euphrates which (is) upon the river 'Sagurri, which the Kings
[40] of the Hittites call the city of Pitru,
[41] for myself I took. At my return
[42] into the lowlands of the country of Alzi I descended. The country of Alzi I conquered.
[43] The countries of Dayaeni (and) Elam, (and) the city of Arzascunu, the royal city
[44] of Arame of the country of the Armenians, the country of Gozan (and) the country of Khupuscia.
[45] During the eponymy of Dayan-Assur from the city of Nineveh I departed. The Euphrates
[46] in its upper part I crossed. After Akhuni the son of Adin I went.
[47] The heights on the banks of the Euphrates as his stronghold he made.
[48] The mountains I attacked, I captured. Akhuni with his gods, his chariots,
[49] his horses, his sons (and) his daughters I carried away. To my city Assur
[50] I brought (them). In that same year the country of Kullar I crossed. To the country of Zamua
[51] of Bit-Ani I went down. The cities of Nigdiara of the city of the Idians
[52] (and) Nigdima I captured. In my fifth year to the country of Kasyari I ascended.
[53] The strongholds I captured. Elkhitti of the Serurians (in) his city I shut up. His tribute
[54] to a large amount I received. In my sixth year to the cities on the banks of the river Balikhi
Face D

[55] I approached. Gi'ammu, their Governor, I smote.
[56] To the city of Tel-abil-akhi I descended.
[57] The Euphrates in its upper part I crossed.
[58] The tribute of the Kings of the Hittites
[59] all of them I received. In those days Rimmon-idri
[60] of Damascus, Irkhulina of Hamath,. and the Kings
[61] of the Hittites and of the sea-coasts to the forces of each other
[62] trusted, and to make war and battle
[63] against me came. By the command of Assur, the great Lord, my Lord,
[64] with them I fought. A destruction of them I made.
[65] Their chariots, their war-carriages, their war-material I took from them.
[66] 20,500 of their fighting men with arrows I slew.
[67] In my seventh year to the cities of Khabini of the city of Tel-Abni I went.
[68] The City of Tel-Abni, his stronghold, together with the cities which (were) dependent on it I captured.
[69] To the head of the river, the springs of the Tigris, the place where the waters rise, I went.
[70] The weapons of Assur in the midst (of it) I rested. Sacrifices for my gods I took. Feasts and rejoicing
[71] I made. An image of my Royalty of large size I constructed. The laws of Assur my Lord, the records
[72] of my victories, whatsoever in the world I had done, in the midst of it I wrote. In the middle (of the country) I set (it) up.
Face A, base

[73] In my eighth year, Merodach-suma-iddin King of Gan-Dunias

[74] did Merodach-bila-yu'sate his foster-brother against him rebel
[75] strongly had he fortified (the land). To exact punishment
[76] against Merodach-suma-iddin I went. The city of the waters of the Dhurnat I took.
[77] In my ninth campaign a second time to the land of Accad I went.
[78] The city of Gana-nate I besieged. Merodach-bila-yu'sate exceeding fear
[79] of Assur (and) Merodach overwhelmed, and to save his life to
[80] the mountains he ascended. After him I rode. Merodach-bila-yu'sate (and) the officers
[81] the rebels who (were) with him (with) arrows I slew. To the great fortresses
[82] I went. Sacrifices in Babylon, Borsippa, (and) Cuthah I made.
[83] Thanksgivings to the great gods I offered up. To the country of Kaldu I descended. Their cities I captured.
[84] The tribute of the Kings of the country of Kaldu I received. The greatness of my arms as far as the sea overwhelmed.

A Phoenician head
[85] In my tenth year for the eighth time the Euphrates I crossed. The cities of 'Sangara of the city of the Carchemishians I captured.
[86] To the cities of Arame I approached. Arne his royal city with 100 of his (other) towns I captured.
[87] In my eleventh year for the ninth time the Euphrates I crossed. Cities to a countless number I captured. To the cities of the Hittites
[88] of the land of the Hamathites I went down. Eighty-nine cities I took. Rimmon-idri of Damascus (and) twelve of the Kings of the Hittites
[89] with one another's forces strengthened themselves. A destruction of them I made. In my twelfth campaign for the tenth time the Euphrates I crossed.
[90] To the land of Pagar-khubuna I went. Their spoil I carried away. In my thirteenth year to the country of Yaeti I ascended.
[91] Their spoil I carried away. In my fourteenth year the country I assembled the Euphrates I crossed. Twelve Kings against me had come.
[92] I fought. A destruction of them I made. In my fifteenth year among the sources of the Tigris (and) the Euphrates I went. An image
[93] of my Majesty in their hollows I erected. In my sixteenth year the waters of the Zab I crossed. To the country of Zimri
[94] I went. Merodach-mudammik King of the land of Zimru to save his life (the mountains) ascended. His treasure
[95] his army (and) his gods to Assyria I brought. Yan'su son of Khanban to the kingdom over them I raised.
Face B, base

[96] In my seventeenth year the Euphrates I crossed. To the land of Amanus I ascended. Logs
[97] of cedar I cut. In my eighteenth year for the sixteenth time the Euphrates I crossed. Hazael
[98] of Damascus to battle came. 1,221 of his chariots, 470 of his war-carriages with
[99] his camp I took from him. In my nineteenth campaign for the eighteenth time the Euphrates I crossed. To the land of Amanus
[100] I ascended. Logs of cedar I cut. In my 20th year for the 20th time the Euphrates
To be continued


The Black Obelisk inscription

(35&ndash44) In my third year, Ahûni, son of Adini, was frightened before my mighty weapons and retreated from Til-barzip, his royal city. I crossed the Euphrates and seized for myself the city of Ana-Assur-utir-asbat, which is on the Sagur river, on the far side of the Euphrates. The Hittite people called it Pitru. On my return, I entered the passes of the land of Alzi I conquered the lands of Alzi, Suhni, Daiaeni, Tumme, Arzashkunu (the royal city of the Armenian king Arame), Gilzânu, and Hubushkia.


Arame (ruled 858–844 BC) was the first known king of the Armenian Kingdom of Van commonly known by its Akkadian exonym as Urartu. Living at the time of King Shalmaneser III of Assyria (ruled 859–824 BC), Arame united Armenian tribes against the threat of the Assyrian Empire. His capital at Arzashkun was captured by the Assyrian Shalmaneser III as recorded on the obelisk.

Arame has been suggested as the prototype of both Aram (and, correspondingly the popular given name Aram) and Ara the Beautiful, two of the legendary forefathers of the Armenian people. Khorenatsi’s History (1.5) puts them six and seven generations after Haik (Khaldi).

Despite the claimed conquest by Shalmaneser III the Armenian kingdom of Van had survived the Assyrian incursions and outlived Assyria itself. As the Assyrian language gradually disappeared from historic records (after decline of Assyria and rise of Media) so did the toponym Urartu ceased to be used. Instead only the name Armenia survived henceforward in the annals of history.

It is interesting to note that the names of these early Armenian kings and their cities have survived until today in Armenian folk tales and legends.

[2]History of Egypt – Page 91 by G. Maspero

[3]David Marshall Lang, Armenia: Cradle of Civilization (1970).

[4]Авдиев В. И. «История Древнего Востока», М.: «Высшая школа», 1970, с. 419 420.


The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, side A, 3rd register - History

* Library collection: "World's Greatest Literature"
* Published work: "Babylonian and Assyrian Literature"
* Translator: Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A.
* Publisher: P. F. Collier & Son, New York
* Copyright: Colonial Press, 1901

The text is indexed by lines, and every 5th line is marked with a HTML anchor for referencing.

This inscription is engraved on an obelisk of black marble, five feet in height, found by Mr. Layard in the centre of the Mound at Nimroud, and now in the British Museum. Each of its four sides is divided into five compartments of sculpture representing the tribute brought to the Assyrian King by vassal princes, Jehu of Israel being among the number. Shalmaneser, whose annals and conquests are recorded upon it, was the son of Assur-natsir-pal, and died in 823 B.C., after a reign of thirty-five years. A translation of the inscription was one of the first achievements of Assyrian decipherment, and was made by Sir. H. Rawlinson and Dr. Hincks shortly afterward (in 1851) succeeded in reading the name of Jehu in it. M. Oppert translated the inscription in his "Histoire des Empires de Chaldee et d'Assyrie," and M. Menant has given another rendering of it in his "Annales des Rois d'Assyrie" (1874). A copy of the text will be found in Layard's "Inscriptions in the Cuneiform Character" (1851).

Note: Jehu of Israel is not actually in the text: it is in the Epigraphs accompanying the sculptures as "Yahua son of Khumri".

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
(Pages 238-249)

[1] Assur, the great Lord, the King of all
[2] the great gods Anu, King of the spirits of heaven
[3] and the spirits of earth, the god, Lord of the world Bel
[4] the Supreme, Father of the gods, the Creator
[5] Hea, King of the deep, determiner of destinies,
[6] the King of crowns, drinking in brilliance
[7] Rimmon, the crowned hero, Lord of canals the Sun-god
[8] the Judge of heaven and earth, the urger on of all
[9] (Merodach), Prince of the gods, Lord of battles Adar, the terrible,
[10] (Lord) of the spirits of heaven and the spirits of earth, the exceeding strong god Nergal,
[11] the powerful (god), King of the battle Nebo, the bearer of the high sceptre,
[12] the god, the Father above Beltis, the wife of Bel, mother of the (great) gods
[13] Istar, sovereign of heaven and earth, who the face of heroism perfectest
[14] the great (gods), determining destinies, making great my kingdom.
[15] (I am) Shalmaneser, King of multitudes of men, prince (and) hero of Assur, the strong King,
[16] King of all the four zones of the Sun (and) of multitudes of men, the marcher over
[17] the whole world Son of Assur-natsir-pal, the supreme hero, who his heroism over the gods
[18] has made good and has caused all the world to kiss his feet

[19] the noble offspring of Tiglath-Adar
[20] who has laid his yoke upon all lands hostile to him, and
[21] has swept (them) like a whirlwind.
[22] At the beginning of my reign, when on the throne
[23] of royalty mightily I had seated myself, the chariots
[24] of my host I collected. Into the lowlands of the country of 'Sime'si
[25] I descended. The city of Aridu, the strong city
[26] of Ninni, I took. In my first year
[27] the Euphrates in its flood I crossed. To the sea of the setting sun
[28] I went. My weapons on the sea I rested. Victims
[29] for my gods I took. To mount Amanus I went up.
[30] Logs of cedar-wood and pine-wood I cut. To
[31] the country of Lallar I ascended. An image of my Royalty in the midst (of it) I erected.
[32] In my second year to the city of Tel-Barsip I approached. The cities
[33] of Akhuni the son of Adin I captured. In his city I shut him up. The Euphrates
[34] in its flood I crossed. The city of Dabigu, a choice city of the Hittites
[35] together with the cities which (were) dependent upon it I captured. In my third year Akhuni
[36] the son of Adin, from the face of my mighty weapons fled, and the city of Tel-Barsip,

[37] his royal city, he fortified. The Euphrates I crossed.
[38] The city unto Assyria I restored. I took it. (The town) which (is) on the further side
[39] of the Euphrates which (is) upon the river 'Sagurri, which the Kings
[40] of the Hittites call the city of Pitru,
[41] for myself I took. At my return
[42] into the lowlands of the country of Alzi I descended. The country of Alzi I conquered.
[43] The countries of Dayaeni (and) Elam, (and) the city of Arzascunu, the royal city
[44] of Arame of the country of the Armenians, the country of Gozan (and) the country of Khupuscia.
[45] During the eponymy of Dayan-Assur from the city of Nineveh I departed. The Euphrates
[46] in its upper part I crossed. After Akhuni the son of Adin I went.
[47] The heights on the banks of the Euphrates as his stronghold he made.
[48] The mountains I attacked, I captured. Akhuni with his gods, his chariots,
[49] his horses, his sons (and) his daughters I carried away. To my city Assur
[50] I brought (them). In that same year the country of Kullar I crossed. To the country of Zamua
[51] of Bit-Ani I went down. The cities of Nigdiara of the city of the Idians
[52] (and) Nigdima I captured. In my fifth year to the country of Kasyari I ascended.
[53] The strongholds I captured. Elkhitti of the Serurians (in) his city I shut up. His tribute
[54] to a large amount I received. In my sixth year to the cities on the banks of the river Balikhi

[55] I approached. Gi'ammu, their Governor, I smote.
[56] To the city of Tel-abil-akhi I descended.
[57] The Euphrates in its upper part I crossed.
[58] The tribute of the Kings of the Hittites
[59] all of them I received. In those days Rimmon-idri
[60] of Damascus, Irkhulina of Hamath,. and the Kings
[61] of the Hittites and of the sea-coasts to the forces of each other
[62] trusted, and to make war and battle
[63] against me came. By the command of Assur, the great Lord, my Lord,
[64] with them I fought. A destruction of them I made.
[65] Their chariots, their war-carriages, their war-material I took from them.
[66] 20,500 of their fighting men with arrows I slew.
[67] In my seventh year to the cities of Khabini of the city of Tel-Abni I went.
[68] The City of Tel-Abni, his stronghold, together with the cities which (were) dependent on it I captured.
[69] To the head of the river, the springs of the Tigris, the place where the waters rise, I went.
[70] The weapons of Assur in the midst (of it) I rested. Sacrifices for my gods I took. Feasts and rejoicing
[71] I made. An image of my Royalty of large size I constructed. The laws of Assur my Lord, the records
[72] of my victories, whatsoever in the world I had done, in the midst of it I wrote. In the middle (of the country) I set (it) up.

[73] In my eighth year, Merodach-suma-iddin King of Gan-Dunias
[74] did Merodach-bila-yu'sate his foster-brother against him rebel
[75] strongly had he fortified (the land). To exact punishment
[76] against Merodach-suma-iddin I went. The city of the waters of the Dhurnat I took.
[77] In my ninth campaign a second time to the land of Accad I went.
[78] The city of Gana-nate I besieged. Merodach-bila-yu'sate exceeding fear
[79] of Assur (and) Merodach overwhelmed, and to save his life to
[80] the mountains he ascended. After him I rode. Merodach-bila-yu'sate (and) the officers
[81] the rebels who (were) with him (with) arrows I slew. To the great fortresses
[82] I went. Sacrifices in Babylon, Borsippa, (and) Cuthah I made.
[83] Thanksgivings to the great gods I offered up. To the country of Kaldu I descended. Their cities I captured.
[84] The tribute of the Kings of the country of Kaldu I received. The greatness of my arms as far as the sea overwhelmed.
[85] In my tenth year for the eighth time the Euphrates I crossed. The cities of 'Sangara of the city of the Carchemishians I captured.
[86] To the cities of Arame I approached. Arne his royal city with 100 of his (other) towns I captured.
[87] In my eleventh year for the ninth time the Euphrates I crossed. Cities to a countless number I captured. To the cities of the Hittites
[88] of the land of the Hamathites I went down. Eighty-nine cities I took. Rimmon-idri of Damascus (and) twelve of the Kings of the Hittites
[89] with one another's forces strengthened themselves. A destruction of them I made. In my twelfth campaign for the tenth time the Euphrates I crossed.
[90] To the land of Pagar-khubuna I went. Their spoil I carried away. In my thirteenth year to the country of Yaeti I ascended.
[91] Their spoil I carried away. In my fourteenth year the country I assembled the Euphrates I crossed. Twelve Kings against me had come.
[92] I fought. A destruction of them I made. In my fifteenth year among the sources of the Tigris (and) the Euphrates I went. An image
[93] of my Majesty in their hollows I erected. In my sixteenth year the waters of the Zab I crossed. To the country of Zimri
[94] I went. Merodach-mudammik King of the land of Zimru to save his life (the mountains) ascended. His treasure
[95] his army (and) his gods to Assyria I brought. Yan'su son of Khanban to the kingdom over them I raised.

[96] In my seventeenth year the Euphrates I crossed. To the land of Amanus I ascended. Logs
[97] of cedar I cut. In my eighteenth year for the sixteenth time the Euphrates I crossed. Hazael
[98] of Damascus to battle came. 1,221 of his chariots, 470 of his war-carriages with
[99] his camp I took from him. In my nineteenth campaign for the eighteenth time the Euphrates I crossed. To the land of Amanus
[100] I ascended. Logs of cedar I cut. In my 20th year for the 20th time the Euphrates
[101] I crossed. To the land of Kahue I went down. Their cities I captured. Their spoil
[102] I carried off. In my 21st campaign, for the 21st time the Euphrates I crossed. To the cities
[103] of Hazael of Damascus I went. Four of his fortresses I took. The tribute of the Tyrians,
[104] the Zidonians (and) the Gebalites I received. In my 22d campaign for the 22d time the Euphrates
[105] I crossed. To the country of Tabalu I went down. In those days (as regards) the 24
[106] Kings of the country of Tabalu their wealth I received. To conquer
[107] the mines of silver, of salt and of stone for sculpture I went. In my 23d year
[108] the Euphrates I crossed. The city of Uetas, his strong city,
[109] (which belonged) to Lalla of the land of the Milidians I captured. The Kings of the country of Tabalu
[110] had set out. Their tribute I received. In my 24th year, the lower Zab
[111] I crossed. The land of Khalimmur I passed through. To the land of Zimru
[112] I went down. Yan'su King of the Zimri from the face
[113] of my mighty weapons fled and to save his life
[114] ascended (the mountains). The cities of 'Sikhisatakh, Bit-Tamul, Bit-Sacci
[115] (and) Bit-Sedi, his strong cities, I captured. His fighting men I slew.
[116] His spoil I carried away. The cities I threw down, dug up, (and) with fire burned.
[117] The rest of them to the mountains ascended. The peaks of the mountains
[118] I attacked, I captured. Their fighting men I slew. Their spoil (and) their goods
[119] I caused to be brought down. From the country of Zimru I departed. The tribute of 27 Kings
[120] of the country of Par'sua I received. From the country of Par'sua I departed. To
[121] the strongholds of the country of the Amadai, (and) the countries of Arazias (and) Kharkhar I went down.
[122] The cities of Cua-cinda, Khazzanabi, Ermul,
[123] (and) Cin-ablila with the cities which were dependent on them I captured. Their fighting men

[124] I slew. Their spoil I carried away. The cities I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire. An image of my Majesty
[125] in the country of Kharkhara I set up. Yan'su son of Khaban with his abundant treasures
[126] his gods, his sons, his daughters, his soldiers in large numbers I carried off. To Assyria I brought (them). In my 25th campaign
[127] the Euphrates at its flood I crossed. The tribute of the Kings of the Hittites, all of them, I received. The country of Amanus
[128] I traversed. To the cities of Cati of the country of the Kahuians I descended. The city of Timur, his strong city
[129] I besieged, I captured. Their fighting men I slew. Its spoil I carried away. The cities to a countless number I threw down, dug up,
[130] (and) burned with fire. On my return, the city of Muru, the strong city of Arame the son of Agu'si,
[131] (as) a possession for myself I took. Its entrance-space I marked out. A palace, the seat of my Majesty, in the middle (of it) I founded.
[132] In my 26th year for the seventh time the country of the Amanus I traversed. For the fourth time to the cities of Cati
[133] of the country of the Kahuians I went. The city of Tanacun, the strong city of Tulca I approached. Exceeding fear
[134] of Assur my Lord overwhelmed him and (when) he had come out my feet he took. His hostages I took. Silver, gold,
[135] iron, oxen, (and) sheep, (as) his tribute I received. From the city of Tanacun I departed. To the country of Lamena
[136] I went. The men collected themselves. An inaccessible mountain they occupied. The peak of the mountain I assailed,
[137] I took. Their fighting men I slew. Their spoil, their oxen, their sheep, from the midst of the mountain I brought down.
[138] Their cities I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire. To the city of Khazzi I went. My feet they took. Silver (and) gold,
[139] their tribute, I received. Cirri, the brother of Cati to the sovereignty over them
[140] I set. On my return to the country of Amanus I ascended. Beams of cedar I cut,
[141] I removed, to my city Assur I brought. In my 27th year the chariots of my armies I mustered. Dayan-Assur
[142] the Tartan, the Commander of the wide-spreading army, at the head of my army to the country of Armenia I urged,
[143] I sent. To Bit-Zamani he descended. Into the low ground to the city of Ammas he went down. The river Arzane he crossed.
[144] 'Seduri of the country of the Armenians heard, and to the strength of his numerous host
[145] he trusted and to make conflict (and) battle against me he came. With him I fought.
[146] A destruction of him I made. With the flower of his youth his broad fields I filled. In my 28th year
[147] when in the city of Calah I was stopping news had been brought (me, that) men of the Patinians
[148] Lubarni their Lord had slain (and) 'Surri (who was) not heir to the throne to the kingdom had raised.
[149] Dayan-Assur the Tartan, the Commander of the widespreading army at the head of my host (and) my camp
[150] I urged, I sent. The Euphrates in its flood he crossed. In the city of Cinalua his royal city
[151] a slaughter he made. (As for) 'Surri the usurper, exceeding fear of Assur my Lord
[152] overwhelmed him, and the death of his destiny he went. The men of the country of the Patinians from before the sight of my mighty weapons

[153] fled, and the children of 'Surri together with the soldiers, the rebels, (whom) they had taken they delivered to me.
[154] Those soldiers on stakes I fixed. 'Sa'situr of the country of Uzza my feet took. To the kingdom
[155] over them I placed (him). Silver, gold, lead, bronze, iron, (and) the horns of wild bulls to a countless number I received.
[156] An image of my Majesty of great size I made. In the city of Cinalua his royal city in the temple of his gods I set it up. In
[157] my 29th year (my) army (and) camp I urged, I sent. To the country of Cirkhi I ascended. Their cities I threw down,
[158] dug up, (and) burned with fire. Their country like a thunderstorm I swept. Exceeding
[159] fear over them I cast. In my 30th year when in the city of Calah I was stopping, Dayan-Assur
[160] the Tartan, the Commander of the wide-spreading army at the head of my army I urged, I sent. The river Zab
[161] he crossed. To the midst of the cities of the city of Khupusca he approached. The tribute of Datana
[162] of the city of the Khupuscians I received. From the midst of the cities of the Khupuscians
[163] I departed. To the midst of the cities of Maggubbi of the country of the Madakhirians he approached. The tribute
[164] I received. From the midst of the cities of the country of the Madakhirians he departed. To the midst of the cities of Udaci
[165] of the country of the Mannians he approached. Udaci of the country of the Mannians from before the sight of my mighty weapons
[166] fled, and the city of Zirta, his royal city, he abandoned. To save his life he ascended (the mountains).
[167] After him I pursued. His oxen, his sheep, his spoil, to a countless amount I brought back. His cities
[168] I threw down, dug up, (and) burned with fire. From the country of the Mannians he departed. To the cities of Sulu'sunu of the country of Kharru
[169] he approached. The city of Mairsuru, his royal city, together with the cities which depended on it he captured. (To) Sulu'sunu
[170] together with his sons mercy I granted. To his country I restored him. A payment (and) tribute of horses I imposed.
[171] My yoke upon him I placed. To the city of Surdira he approached. The tribute of Arta-irri
[172] of the city of the Surdirians I received. To the country of Par'sua I went down. The tribute of the Kings
[173] of the country of Par'sua I received. (As for) the rest of the country of Par'sua which did not reverence Assur, its cities
[174] I captured. Their spoil, their plunder to Assyria I brought. In my 31st year, the second time, the cyclical-feast
[175] of Assur and Rimmon I had inaugurated. At the time while I was stopping in the city of Calah, Dayan-Assur
[176] the Tartan, the Commander of my wide-spreading army, at the head of my army (and) my camp I urged, I sent.
[177] To the cities of Data of the country of Khupusca he approached. The tribute I received.
[178] To the city of Zapparia, a stronghold of the country of Muzatsira, I went. The city of Zapparia together with
[179] forty-six cities of the city of the Muzatsirians I captured. Up to the borders of the country of the Armenians
[180] I went. Fifty of their cities I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire. To the country of Guzani I went down. The tribute
[181] of Upu of the country of the Guzanians, of the country of the Mannians, of the country of the Buririans, of the country of the Kharranians,
[182] of the country of the Sasganians, of the country of the Andians, (and) of the country of the Kharkhanians, oxen, sheep, (and) horses
[183] trained to the yoke I received. To the cities of the country of . . . I went down. The city of Perria
[184] (and) the city of Sitivarya, its strongholds, together with 22 cities which depended upon it, I threw down, dug up
[185] (and) burned with fire. Exceeding fear over them I cast. To the cities of the Parthians he went.
[186] The cities of Bustu, Sala-khamanu (and) Cini-khamanu, fortified towns, together with 23 cities
[187] which depended upon them I captured. Their fighting-men I slew. Their spoil I carried off. To the country of Zimri I went down.
[188] Exceeding fear of Assur (and) Merodach overwhelmed them. Their cities they abandoned. To
[189] inaccessible mountains they ascended. Two hundred and fifty of their cities I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire.
[190] Into the lowground of Sime'si at the head of the country of Khalman I went down.

The Epigraphs accompanying the sculptures

[1] The tribute of 'Su'a of the country of the Guzanians: silver, gold, lead, articles of bronze, sceptres for the King's hand, horses (and) camels with double backs: I received.
[2] The tribute of Yahua son of Khumri: silver, gold, bowls of gold, vessels of gold, goblets of gold, pitchers of gold, lead, sceptres for the King's hand, (and) staves: I received.
[3] The tribute of the country of Muzri: camels with double backs, an ox of the river 'Saceya, horses, wild asses, elephants, (and) apes: I received.
[4] The tribute of Merodach-pal-itstsar of the country of the 'Sukhians: silver, gold, pitchers of gold, tusks of the wild bull, staves, antimony, garments of many colors, (and) linen: I received.
[5] The tribute of Garparunda of the country of the Patinians: silver, gold, lead, bronze, gums, articles of bronze, tusks of wild bulls, (and) ebony: I received.


Contents

As the son of Aššur-nâṣir-apli II and his wife Mullissu-mukannišat-Ninua , he was the focus of his father's great plans from birth. As an heir, he received the name of the former king Salmānu-ašarēd I , whom his father probably regarded as a great role model. So he moved the residence to today's Nimrud , a town called Kalḫu or Kalach in Assyrian times, built by Salmānu-ašarēd I about 500 years earlier. Above it he had a huge palace built, which he finally left to his son as the center of a new great power.

After the accession to the throne Salmānu-ašarēd III. his father's final resting place in the long-prepared crypt of the disused Old Palace in Aššur. German excavators rediscovered it after the Second World War and it still contained the smashed remains of the basalt coffin. Then he set about the task of continuing the work. Salmānu-ašarēd III turned out to be. as a warlike king like his father and he extended the borders of the empire in all directions with his field marshal Dajan-Aššur as commander in chief.

In the first year of his reign, the inscription on a throne base from Nimrud reports, he was able to symbolically dip his sword into the “ Sea of ​​Nairi ” ( Lake Van or Lake Urmia ). Allied with Babylonia, he then gradually consolidated the Assyrian sovereignty over Syria and Palestine. Numerous princes had to pay tribute. Including Jehu and in the year 853 BC Chr. Ahab , in the Bible as the kings of Israel are mentioned. Only the conquest of the Aramaic Damascus was denied to him despite great efforts. The city had played a key role in the formation of an anti-Assyrian alliance of city-states, which Salmānu-ašarēd III. had opposed in the shaft of Qarqar . In the mountainous north there was a successful trial of strength with the Urartu Empire . The campaign, however, required such great forces that a permanent occupation was out of the question.

In addition to victory steles, which mark the end points of his expeditions, his war reports are also preserved to this day on his famous black obelisk and on the approximately seven-meter-high bronze gate in Balawat . The most significant works of art from his reign are the palace doors of Imgur-Enlil (Balawat C). The Kurchstele provides a list of his opponents.

Towards the end of his tenure, there was an uprising of 27 city-states under the leadership of his eldest son Aššur-danin-apla . He could no longer master this before his death. His son and heir Šamši-Adad V was dependent on the support of Marduk-zākir-šumi I from Babylon and was only able to decide the power struggle in his favor after six years of civil war.


Inscription on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (Version B)

( Ashur , eldest son to Marduk )

I. Assur ( Orien / Osiris ) , the great lord, the king of all

( Anu in his winged sky-disc , king on planet Nibiru & over the giant aliens on Earth)

2. the great gods Anu t he king of the Igigi (space truckers)

( Bel / Enlil , King Anu‘s son & heir, Anu‘s Earth Colony Commander )

3. and the Anunnaki 1 the lord of the world, the supreme, Bel ( Enlil )

4. the father of the gods, the creator

( Enki , King Anu in his winged sky-disc , Enlil , & winged minor Apkulla pilots )

5. of the universe Ea ( Enki ) , the king of the abyss (waters) who determines destinies

/> ( Nannar / Sin , Enlil‘s son, Moon Crescent god of Ur Nannar )

6. Sin ( Nannar ) , the king of the (lunar) disk, who sheds the light

( Adad King Hammurabi & Utu / Shamash , the Sun god )

7. Adad ( Ishkur ) , 2 the very mighty, the master of abundance Shamash ( Utu ) ,

8. the judge of heaven and earth, the ordainer of all things

( giant alien god Marduk , patron god of Babylon , son to Enki )

9. Merodach ( Marduk ) , the herald of the gods, the master of the laws Adar , 3 the captain

( Nergal Nergal in his sky-chariot / sky-disc , lord of the Under World , spouse to Ereshkigal )

10. of the Igigi (space truckers on mars) and the Anunnaki , the god all-powerful Nergal ,

11. the valiant, the king of battles Nusku ( Enlil ‘s son) who bears the august scepter,

( Enlil & equal spouse Ninlil images carved into ancient city wall)

12. the omniscient god Beltis ( Ninlil ) , the wife of Bel ( Enlil ) , the mother of the great gods

( Inanna , daughter to Nannar , powerful Goddess of Love & War , upon her Zodiac symbol Leo)

13. Ishtar ( Inanna ) , the princess of heaven and earth, accomplished in courageous decisions

14. the great gods who have determined my destinies and enlarged my royalty!

(alien giant Ashur with his king, attentively receiving his instructions directly from god)

15. Shalmaneser ( II ) , the king of the multitude of men, high-priest of Assur , the powerful king,

(damaged semi-divine Babylonian king stands before the “ Sun-god” Utu , Nannar‘s son, Inanna‘s twin)

16. the king of all the four regions, the Sun-god ( Utu )of the multitude of mankind, who governs

(giant mixed-breed King Ashurnatsirpal I pointing at symbols of the gods)

17. in all countries the son of Assur-natsir-pal , the supreme priest, (& king)whose priesthood unto the gods

18. was pleasing, and who has subdued unto his feet all lands

Face B, Top

19. the illustrious offspring of Tukulti-Adar 1

20. who subjugated all his enemies and

21. swept them like the tempest.—

22. At the beginning of my reign, when on the throne

23. of the kingdom I had seated myself in state, my chariots

24. (and) my armies I assembled. Into the defiles of the land of Simesi 2

( Enki‘s patron city Eridu & his ziggurat temple residence)

25. I penetrated. Aridu ( Eridu , Enki‘s patron city) , the strong city

26. of Ninni ( Ninki ? ) I captured.—In the first year of my reign

27. I crossed the Euphrates in its flood towards the sea of the setting sun

28. I marched. I purified my weapons in the sea. Victims

29. to my gods I sacrificed. I ascended mount Amanus 3

30. I cut logs of cedar and thuya.

31. I climbed mount Lallar and erected there an image of my royalty.—

32. In the second year of my reign I approached the city of Til-Barsaip . 4 The cities

33. of Akhuni the son of Adini I captured I shut him up in his city. 5 The Euphrates

34. I crossed in its flood. Dabigu , a fortress of the land of the Hittites , 6

35. together with the cities that were dependent upon it I captured.—In the third year of my reign Akhuni

36. the son of Adini trembled before my powerful arms, and Til-Barsaip ,

Face C, Top

37. his royal city, he abandoned, and he crossed the Euphrates .

38. The City of Ana-Assur-utir-atsbat , 1 situated on the further side

39. of the Euphrates , upon the river Sagurra , 2 which the people

40. of the land of the Hittites call Pitru , 3

41. I took for myself. On my return

42. I penetrated into the defiles of the country of Alzi . 4 The countries of Alzi , Lukh[me] ,

43. Dayeni (and) Numme , the City of Arzashkun the capital

44. of Arame of the country of Urardhu , 5 the countries of Guzan (and) Khupushkia [I have conquered].

45. In the eponymy of Dayan-Assur 6 I departed from Nineveh the Euphrates

46. I crossed at its flood. I marched against Akhuni the son of Adini the country of Shitamrat, 7

47. a mountain peak on the bank of the Euphrates , he made his stronghold. The peak

48. of the mountain I assaulted and captured. Akhuni with his gods, his chariots,

( Ashur‘s ziggurat temple residence in his patron city of Assur, city found way below)

49. his horses, his sons, his daughters, (and) his army I carried away and to my city of Assur ( Ashur‘s patron city)

50. I brought. In that same year I crossed mount Kullar to the country of Zamua

51. of Bitani 8 I descended. The cities of Nikdiara the prince of the Idians

52. (and) of Nikdima I captured.—In the fifth year of my reign I ascended mount Kashyari . 1 Eleven strong cities

53. I captured. I besieged Ankhitti 2 of the country of the Rurians in his city. His tribute

54. abundant I received.—In the sixth year of my reign to the cities on the banks of the Balikhi 3

Face D, Top

55. I approached. They had slain Giammu their governor.

56. I entered the city of Til-Turakhe . 4

57. I crossed the Euphrates at its flood.

58. The tribute of the kings of the country of the Hittites

59. all of them I received . Then Dadda-Idri 5

60. the king of the country of Emerishu , 6 Irkhulina 7 of the country of the Hamathites , together with the kings

61. of the country of the Hittites and of the coast of the Sea, to their allied forces

62. trusted, and to offer combat and battle

( Marduk‘s son Ashur in his winged sky-disc , instructing his king to continue on)

63. came against me. By the command of Assur ( Ashur ) the great lord, my lord,

64. I fought with them, I defeated them.

65. I took from them their chariots, their litters (?) (and) their war material.

66. I slew 20,500 of their soldiers with weapons.—

67. In the 7th year of my reign I marched against the cities of Khabini (prince) of Til-Abnê .

68. I captured Til-Abnê his stronghold and the cities dependent on it.

69. I marched to the sources of the Tigris , the place from whence the waters gush forth

70. there I purified the arms of Assur (alien advanced weaponry) I sacrificed victims to my gods a feast of rejoicing

71. I made. I erected a great image of my royal majesty. The glory of Assur my lord, the exploits

72. of my valor, and all that I had done in these countries, I inscribed upon it I set (it) up there.—

Face A, Base

73. In the 8th year of my reign (against) Merodach-shum-iddin the king of the country of Karduniash 1

74. Merodach-bel-usate his younger brother revolted. (The country)

75. they divided between them. To avenge

76. Merodach-shum-iddin I marched. I captured the city of Me-Turnat . 2—

77. In the 9th year of my reign for the second time I marched to the country of Accad ( Akkad ) . 3

I besieged Gananate . As for Merodach-bel-usate, the terror

( Ashur father Marduk , used alien weaponry insuring victories for their mixed-breed kings)

79. of the glory of Assur (and) Merodach overwhelmed him , and to save his life

80. he ascended the mountain. I marched after him. Merodach-bel-usate (and) the soldiers,

81. the rebel-chiefs who were with him I slew with my weapons. To the great cities

82. I marched I offered sacrifices in Babylon ( Marduk‘s city) , Borsippa ( Nabu‘s city)and Kuta . 4

83. I made offerings to the great gods. I descended to the country of Chaldæa 1 I captured their cities.

84. I received the tribute of the kings of the country of Chaldæa . The torrent (?) of my arms overwhelmed as far as the Salt-marshes. 2—

85. In the 10th year of my reign for the eighth time I crossed the Euphrates I captured the cities of Sangara of Carchemish 3

86. I approached the cities of Arame. I captured Arnê . his royal city and 100 of his towns.—

87. In the 11th year of my reign for the ninth time I crossed the Euphrates . I captured cities without number. To the cities of the land of the Hittites

88. (and) of the country of the Hamathites I descended. I captured 89 towns. Dadda-idri of the country of Damascus (and) twelve kings of the country of the Hittites 4

89. ranged themselves side by side I overthrew them.—In the 12th year of my reign for the tenth time I crossed the Euphrates .

90. I marched against the country of Paqarkhubuna I carried away their spoil.— In the 13th year of my reign I went up against the country of Yaeti

91. I carried away their spoil.—In the 14th year of my reign I assembled (the men) of the country I crossed the Euphrates twelve kings met me

92. I fought [with them] I overthrew them.—In the 15th year of my reign I marched to the sources of the Tigris (and) Euphrates . An image

93. I erected in their caverns.—In the 16th year of my reign I crossed the Zab 5 to the country of Namri 6

94. I marched. Merodach-mudammiq king of Namri , to save his life, ascended (the mountain): his goods,

95. his troops (and) his gods I transported to Assyria . Yanzu 1 the son of Khanban I raised to the sovereignty over them.—

Face B, Base

96. In the 17th year of my reign I crossed the Euphrates I ascended mount Amanus logs

97. of cedar I cut.—In the 18th year of my reign for the sixteenth time I crossed the Euphrates . Hazael

98. of the country of Damascus advanced to battle: 1121 chariots, 470 litters (?) with

99. his camp I took from him. 2—In the 19th year of my reign for the eighteenth time I crossed the Euphrates . Mount Amanus

100. I ascended: logs of cedar I cut.—In the 20th year of my reign, for the twentieth time, the Euphrates

101. I crossed. Into the country of Qaue 3 I descended. I captured their cities. Their spoil

102. I carried away.—In the 21st year of my reign for the21st time I crossed the Euphrates . Against the cities

103. of Hazael of the country of Damascus I marched four of his cities I captured. The tribute of the Tyrians ,

104. the Sidonians (and) the Gebalites 1 I received.—In the 22d year of my reign for the 22d time the Euphrates

105. I crossed. I descended into the country of Tubal . 2 At that time from the twenty-four

106. kings of Tubal I received gifts. To mount Tumar ,

107. a mountain of silver, a mountain of mulî, 3 a mountain of marble, I marched. —In the 23d year of my reign

108. the Euphrates I crossed. Uetash the stronghold

109. of Lalla the Milidian 4 I captured. The kings of Tubal

110. had come their tribute I received.—In the 24th year of my reign the Lower Zab

111. I crossed. I passed over mount Khashimur into the country of Namri

112. I descended. Yanzû the king of Namri before

113. my powerful (advanced alien) weapons trembled, and to save his life

114. ascended (the mountain). Sikhishalakh , Bit-Tamul , Bit-Sakki

115. (and) Bit-Shêdi his strong cities I captured. His soldiers I slew.

116. His spoil I carried away. I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire the cities.

117. The survivors of them ascended the mountains. The mountain peaks

118. I assaulted, I captured: their soldiers I slew their spoil (and) their goods

119. I carried down. I departed from the country of Namri . The tribute of twenty- seven kings

120. of the country of Parsua 1 I received. From Parsua I departed. Into

121. the country of Messi , the country of the Amadians , 2 the country of Araziash (and) the country of Kharkhar I descended.

Face C, Base

122. The cities of Kuakinda , Khatstsanabi , 3 Esamul

123. (and) Kinablila as well as the towns dependent on them I captured. Their soldiers

124. I slew, their spoil I carried away. The cities I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire. An image of my majesty

125. in the country of Kharkhâra I set up. Yanzû the son of Khaban, with his numerous goods,

126. his gods, his sons, his daughters (and) his many troops I carried away, to Assyria I brought (them).—In the 25th year of my reign

127. the Euphrates at its flood I crossed. I received the tribute of all the kings of the country of the Hittites . Mount Amanus

128. I passed over. I descended into the cities of Katê of the country of the Qauians . Timur his stronghold

129. I assaulted, I captured. I slew their soldiers. I carried away their spoil. The cities to a countless number I threw down, dug up

130. (and) burned with fire. On my return Mûru the stronghold of Arame the son of Agusi

131. I took for myself as a fortress. 4 I surrounded its enclosure (with a wall) I founded therein a palace as my royal abode.—

132. In the 26th year of my reign for the 7th time I passed over Mount Amanus for the 4th time against the cities of Katê

133. of the country of the Qauians I marched. I besieged Tanakun 1 the stronghold of Tulka. The terror

( Ashur overwhelms earthlings using alien advanced weaponry)

134. of the glory of Assur my lord overwhelmed him and they came forth, they took my feet. I took hostages from him. Silver, gold,

135. iron, oxen (and) sheep I received from him as his tribute. I departed from Tanakun against the country of Lamena

136. I marched. The inhabitants fled they occupied an inaccessible mountain the summit of the mountain I assaulted,

137. I captured. Their soldiers I slew their spoil, their oxen (and) their sheep I brought down from the mountain.

138. I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire their cities. Against the city of Tarzi 2 I marched. They took my feet. Silver (and) gold,

139. I received as their tribute. Kirrî the brother of Katê to the sovereignty over them

140. I appointed. On my return I ascended over mount Amanus . Logs of cedar I cut,

(city of Assur with Ashur‘s mud brick-built ziggurat-house way above)

141. I removed, to my city of Assur I transported.—In the 27th year of my reign I assembled my chariots (and) my armies. Dayân-Assur

142. the Tartan, 3 the commander of my numerous armies, at the head of my troops against the country of Ararat I despatched,

143. I sent. Into the country of Bit-Zamani 4 he descended into the defiles of the city of Ammash he entered the river Arzania 5 he crossed.

144. Seduri 1 of the country of the Araratians heard and to the strength of his numerous armies

145. trusted he came against 2 me to make combat (and) battle. I 2 fought with him,

146. I defeated him I filled the wide plain with the bodies of his warriors.—In the 28th year of my reign,

147. while I was staying in Calah , news was brought to me (that) the men of the country of the Patinians 3

148. had slain Lubarni their prince (and) had raised to the sovereignty over them Surri who had no right to the throne.

149. Dayan-Assur the Tartan, the commander of my numerous armies, at the head of my army (and) my train

150. I dispatched, I sent. He crossed the Euphrates at its flood. In Kinalua , 4 the royal city of (Surri),

151. he made a massacre. As for Surri the usurper, the terror of the glory of Assur my lord

/> ( giant alien god Ashur , & scared, overpowered, non-capable earthlings in perfect attention & amazement)

152. overwhelmed him and he died a natural death. The men of the country of the Patinians before the splendour of my powerful weapons (alien high-tech weaponry)

Face D, Base

153. trembled, and they seized the sons of Surri and the leaders in the rebellion (and) delivered (them) to me.

154. I hung these men on gibbets. Sasi a son of the country of Utstsâ took my feet to the sovereignty

155. over them I appointed (him). I received from them silver, gold, lead, copper, iron, (and) ivory to a countless amount.

156. I made a very lofty image of my majesty I placed (it) in Kinalua his royal city in the house of his gods.—In the 29th

157. year of my reign my armies (and) train I dispatched, I sent. I ascended to the country of Kirkhi . 1 Their cities I threw down,

158. dug up (and) burned with fire. Their country I swept like the tempest. The terror

159. of my glory I poured over them.—In the 30th year of my reign, while I was staying in Calah , Dayan-Assur

160. the Tartan, the commander of my numerous armies, I dispatched, I sent at the head of my armies. The Zab

161. he crossed, he made his way to the cities of Khubushkâ . 2 The tribute of Datana

162. the Khubushkian I received. From the cities of the Khubushkian

163. I departed. He 3 approached the cities of Makdubi 4 the Malkhisian . Tribute

164. I received. He 3 departed from the cities of the Malkhisians . To the cities of Ualki

(ancient battle scene of rocket launches & sky-ships manned by alien gods)

165. the Mannian 5 he approached. Ualki the Mannian before the splendour of my puissant weapons

166. trembled, and quitted Zirta his royal city, and to save his life ascended (the mountains).

167. I pursued after him I brought back his oxen, his sheep (and) his goods to a countless number. His cities

168. I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire. He 1 departed from the country of the Mannâ to the cities of Shulusunu of the country of Kharru

169. he approached. He captured Masashuru his royal city as well as the cities dependent on it. To Shulusunu

170. and his sons I granted pardon. I restored him to his country. Gifts (and) tribute, horses trained

171. to the yoke I imposed upon him. He approached Shurdira . The tribute of Artasari

172. the Shurdirian I received. Into the country of Parsu 2 I descended. The tribute of the kings

173. of the country of Parsua I received. As for the rest of the country of Parsua (which was) not obedient to Assur , their cities

174. I captured, their spoil (and) their goods I carried away to Assyria .—In the 31st year of my reign, for the second time, the face

175. I fixed (?) on Assur ( Ashur ) (and) Hadad ( Adad ) . 3 At that time, while I was staying in Calah , Dayan-Assur

176. the Tartan, the commander of my numerous armies, at the head of my armies (and) my train I dispatched, I sent.

177. The cities of Datâ 4 the Khubushkian he approached. Tribute I received.

178. Against the city of Tsapparia the stronghold of the country of Mutsatsira 5 I marched. The city of Tsapparia together with

179. 46 cities of the Mutsatsirians he captured. As far as the fortresses of the people of Ararat

180. I marched. I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire their cities. Into the country of Guzan 1 I descended. The tribute

181. of Ubû the Guzanian , of the Mannians , the … Burisians , the Kharranians , 2

182. the Shashganians , the Andians (and) the A … rians , oxen, sheep, and horses

183. trained to the yoke I received. I descended into the cities of the country of … the cities of Perria

184. (and) Shitiuarya 3 his cities, with twenty-two towns dependent on it, I threw down, dug up

185. (and) burned with fire. I spread over them the terror of my glory. He marched against the cities of the Parsuans .

186. The cities of Bushtu , 4 Shala-Khamanu , (and) Kinikhamanu , strongholds, together with 22 cities

187. which (were) dependent on them I captured. I slew their fighting men, I carried away their spoil. Into the country of Namri I descended.

( Ashur & father Marduk symbolized as a multi-headed beast)

188. The terror of the glory (alien technologies) of Assur (and) Merodach ( Marduk ) overwhelmed them they abandoned their cities, to

189. inaccessible mountains they ascended. I threw down, dug up (and burned with fire 250 of their cities.

190. I descended through the pass of Simesi , the key 5 of the country of Khalman .

THE EPITAPHS OVER THE BAS-RELIEFS

I have received the tribute of Sûa of the country of Guzan : silver, gold, lead, vases of copper, scepters for the hand of the king, horses, (and) dromedaries with two humps.

I have received the tribute of Jehu , the son of Omri: 1 silver, gold, bowls of gold, chalices of gold, cups of gold, pails of gold, lead, scepters for the hand of the king, (and) spear-shafts.

I have received the tribute of the country of Mutsri : 2 dromedaries with two humps, an ox of the river Sakeya (?) an antelope, elephants, 3 (and) apes with their young (?)

I have received the tribute of Merodach-abil-utsur of the country of the Shuhites : 4 silver, gold, pails of gold, ivory, spear-shafts, bûya, embroidered vestments, (and) linen.

I have received the tribute of Garparunda of the country of the Patinians : silver, gold, lead, copper, vases of copper, ivory, (and) boxwood.”

Footnotes

38:1 That is to say, of the spirits of heaven and earth.

38:2 [ Ramman , Rimmon ( Adad ) , — Ed. ]

38:3 [Or Uras ( Urash ) . — Ed. ]

39:1 Tiglath-Uras (mixed-breed demigod son made king) .

39:2 [For the situation of ’Sime’si, see note on line 190.— Ed. ]

39:4 [Probably the Barsampsê of Ptolemy, though Delitzsch identifies it with Birejik.]

39:5 Bit-Adin or Til-Barsip.

39:6 [Or “the city Dabigu (and) the city Birtu of the land of the Hittites” (Khatti).— Ed. ]

40:1 [”For Assur ( Marduk ‘s son ) I have taken (it) again” the name given by Shalmaneser (mixed-breed bloodline descendant made king) to Pethor.— Ed. ]

40:3 [The Pethor of the Old Testament, to which Balaam belonged.— Ed.

40:4 For Alzi, at the sources of the Sebbeneh Su, see Records of the Past, new series, i. p. 94, note 4.

40:6 [B.C. 854. This was at the beginning of the fifth year of the king’s reign.— Ed. ]

40:7 [Or Siparrat.— Ed. ]

40:8 [In Armenia, on the southern shores of Lake Van, so called to distinguish it from another Zamua in Kurdistan between Sulamaniyeh and p. 41 the Shirwan. The Lake of Van is called “the sea of Zamua of Bitani.” The Armenian Zamua is also termed Mazamua. Bitâni in Assyrian signified “palace,” but when applied to Armenia it seems to be intended for an incorrect representation of the native name Biaina(s) or Van.— Ed. ]

41:1 [Mount Masius.— Ed. ]

41:2 [Or perhaps, Ilu-Khitti, see Records of the Past, new series, ii. p. 148, note 2.— Ed. ]

41:3 [The modern Belikh, which flows into the Euphrates north of the Khabour.— Ed. ]

41:4 [Perhaps Tiele is right in reading Til-Balakhe, “the mound of Belikh. “— Ed. ]

41:5 [Hadad-ezer, which in Aramaic would be Hadad-eder. He is the Ben-hadad of the Old Testament, Ben-Hadad “the (mixed-breed demigod) son of Hadad ( Adad ) , ” being, as we learn from the cuneiform inscriptions, the name or title of one of the Syrian gods.— Ed. ]

41:6 [The Assyrian name of the kingdom of Damascus, possibly connected with the word Amorite.— Ed. ]

41:7 [“The moon is our god ( Nannar ) .”— Ed. ]

42:2 “The waters of the Turnat” or Tornadotus, the modern Dijâlah, which falls into the Tigris a little below Bagdad. With the name of the city compare that of the capital of Ammon, 2 Sam. xii. 27.

42:4 Now Tell-Ibrahim, east of Babylon .

43:1 Kaldi, in the marshes at the head of the Persian Gulf.

43:2 Literally “the bitter (river),” Marrati: cf. the Merathaim of Jer. l. 21.

43:3 [Gargamis, now Jerablûs, on the western bank of the Euphrates, a little to the north of the Sajur.— Ed. ]

43:4 [The name is here extended so as to include Syria, Palestine, and even northern Arabia.— Ed. ]

43:5 [Here written Me-Zaba, “the water of the (Lower) Zab.”— Ed. ]

43:6 [In the Kurdish mountains north of Holwân.— Ed. ]

44:1 [In the Kassite language, spoken in the district adjoining Namri, yanzi signified “king.”— Ed. ]

44:2 [The following fragment (W. A. I., iii. 5, No. 6) gives an account of this campaign in further detail:—”In the 18th year of my reign for the 16th time I crossed the Euphrates . Hazael of Damascus trusted to the strength of his armies and assembled his armies to a large number. Saniru (the Biblical Shenir, Deut. iii. 9), a mountain summit as you come to Lebanon , he made his stronghold. I fought with him, I defeated him: 6000 of his soldiers I slew with weapons, 1121 of his chariots, 470 of his war-horses along with his camp I took from him. To save his life he ascended (the mountain). I pursued after him. In Damascus his royal city I shut him up. His plantations I cut down. As far as the mountains of the Hauran I marched. The cities to a countless number I threw down, dug up (and) burned with fire. Their spoil to a countless amount I carried away. As far as the mountain of Bahli-rahsi (Baal-rosh at the mouth of the Dog River), which (is) a headland of the sea, I marched: an image of my majesty I set up upon it. At that time I received the tribute of the Tyrians , the Sidonians (and) of Yahua (Jehu) the son of Khumrî (Omri).”— Ed. ]

44:3 [Elsewhere written Que. They seem to have inhabited the northern shore of the Gulf of Antioch. Lenormant has suggested that the name occurs in 1 Kings x. 28, where the word translated “linen yarn” ought to be rendered “from Queh. “— Ed. ]

45:1 See Josh. xiii. 5 1 Kings v. 32 Ez. xxvii. 9. Gebal was the classical Byblos, eight miles north of Beyrout.

45:2 [Tabali, the Tibareni of classical geography. In the Assyrian period they lived between the Muskâ or Meshech and Komagênê, to the east of Malatiyeh.— Ed. ]

45:3 [Perhaps “salt.”— Ed. ]

45:4 Milid is represented by the modern Malatiyeh.

46:1 [Also called Par´suas in the Vannic inscriptions Bar´suas. It lay to the south-east of the Mannâ or Minni on the south-western shore of Lake Urumiyeh.— Ed. ]

46:2 [Amadâ, probably to be identified with Madâ or “Medes.” If so, this is the earliest mention we have of the latter people.— Ed. ]

46:3 [Or Tarzanabi.— Ed. ]

47:1 [Compare the name of Thanakê given by Apollodoros (iii. 14, 3, I) as the wife of Sandakos, who came from Syria to Kilikia and there founded Kelenderis she was the mother of Kinyras and the daughter of king Megessaros.— Ed. ]

47:3 [Turtannu or “commander-in-chief.” See Is. xx. 1 2 Kings xviii. 17.— Ed. ]

47:4 [Literally “the house of the country of Zamani.”— Ed. ]

47:5 [The Arsanias of classical geography, which joins the Euphrates near Mush to the west of Lake Van.— Ed. ]

48:1 [Sarduris I., of the native Vannic texts, of whom we have two inscriptions in the Assyrian language, both found at Van. He introduced the cuneiform system of writing into Armenia, and seems to have founded the Vannic kingdom. In his inscriptions he calls himself the son of Lutipris and king of Nairi, and claims to have built the citadel of Van. His son and successor, Isbuinis, substituted the native language for Assyrian in his inscriptions. See my Memoir on the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Van, Jrl. R. A. S., xiv. 3, 4 xx. 1.— Ed. ]

48:2 Shalmaneser here identifies himself with his commander-in-chief.

48:3 [The Patinâ inhabited the district between the eastern bank of the Afrin and the Gulf of Antioch, extending southward to the Orontes.— Ed. ]

48:4 [Also called Kunulua and Kinalia, between the Afrin and the Orontes, perhaps the classical Gindarus.— Ed. ]

49:1 [Probably the same as Qurkhi “opposite the land of the Hittites.” See Records of the Past, new series, ii. p. 540, note 4.— Ed. ]

49:2 [Khubuska, also called Khubuskia, lay on the north-eastern frontier of Assyria , between the Zab and the territory of the Minni.— Ed. ]

49:3 That is to say Dayan-Assur.

49:4 [Or Maggubbi.— Ed. ]

49:5 [The Mannâ, called the Manâ in the Vannic inscriptions, are the Minni of Old Testament (Jer. l. 27), who inhabited the country on the eastern border of the kingdom of Ararat or Van, and extended along the western shore of Lake Urumiyeh.— Ed. ]

50:1 That is to say Dayan-Assur.

50:3 [Or Rimmon ( Adad ) .— Ed. ]

50:4 Called Datana above, line 161.

50:5 [Mutsatsira lay on the southern border of the kingdom of Ararat or Van, and was destroyed by Sargon in B.C. 714. The cylinder of its last king Urzana is now in the Museum of the Hague. See my Memoir on the Vannic Inscriptions, p. 693.— Ed. ]

51:1 [This northern Guzan or Gozan was different from the Gozan near Diarbekir, at the sources of the Khabour, to which the Israelites were transported according to 2 Kings xviii. 11. See Epigraph I.— Ed. ]

51:2 [Not to be confounded with the famous city of Kharran or Haran in Mesopotamia, mentioned in Genesis.— Ed. ]

51:3 [Called Satiraraus in the Vannic Inscriptions.— Ed. ]

51:4 [Called the country of Bustus in the Vannic inscriptions, from which we learn that it lay to the south-east of the Mannâ. It would have occupied the southern shore of Lake Urumiyeh.— Ed. ]

51:5 [Literally “at the head.” Khalman, or rather Khalvan, is the modern Holwan. It was here, at Sir-Pul, that Sir H. Rawlinson discovered the cuneiform inscription of Kannubanini king of the Lulubini.— Ed. ]

52:1 “Yahua the son of Khumrî.” This was in B.C. 842. Shalmaneser was misinformed in regard to the relationship of Jehu to the dynasty of Omri. Samaria, however, was known to the Assyrians as “the House of Omri,” in consequence of their first becoming acquainted with it in the reign of Ahab.

52:2 Mutsri lay to the north-east of Khorsabad on the caravan route from the east. See Records of the Past, new series, i. p. 109, note 7.

52:3 [Rather “female elephants.” Perhaps the next word baziati is an adjective in agreement. The “ox” would be either a yak or a rhinoceros according to the bas-relief.— Ed. ]

52:4 [Sukhâ. The Shuhites extended along the western bank of the Euphrates from the Khabour to the Belikh. Cf. Job ii. 11.— Ed. ]


The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, side A, 3rd register - History

This article was first published in the Spring 2004 issue of Bible Spade.

For those that hold a high view of Scripture and believe the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt actually happened, there are two major positions today regarding when that event occurred: the so-called Early Date, which places the Exodus in the mid-15th century BC, most probably during the reign of Amenhotep II, and the so-called Late Date, which posits Rameses II (ca. 1279-1212 BC) as the Pharaoh confronted by Moses. Much has been written in defense of both these views. It is the purpose of this article to take a fresh look at Rameses II as Pharaoh of the Exodus in light of both Biblical and Assyrian chronologies. Is it likely, or even possible, that Rameses II could have been the Pharaoh of the Exodus?

First, let us observe Biblical events and personages between the Exodus and a known date in Near Eastern history, the date of the famous Battle of Qarqar, where a coalition of western kings defeated Shalmaneser III of Assyria. It is accepted, thanks to astronomical data and our solid knowledge of Assyrian chronology, that the battle took place in 853 BC. It is also known that Ahab, king of Israel, was a participant in the battle. Shalmaneser III tells us so in his records regarding Qarqar. Ahab almost certainly died later that same year. 1

How long a period of time does the Bible demand between the Exodus and the death of King Ahab of Israel? If we take the Biblical year totals seriously, quite a lengthy period is required. The Exodus was followed by 40 years of wandering in the wilderness, and then by a long but not absolutely calculatable period for the Conquest and the period of the Judges. While it is likely that there is some overlap among the judges, it still seems necessary to allot between 300 and 400 years for the wanderings, conquest, and days of the judges.

Rameses II, ruler of Egypt for 67 years, ca. 1279-1212 BC. Called 'the Great' because of his military exploits and construction projects, his statues and buildings can still be seen in Egypt today. Even his mummy is on display at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. He also had a great family by his several wives-at least 45 sons and 40 daughters! The tomb of his sons has recently been found in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes. According to the popular, but anti-Biblical, theory of a 13th century Exodus, Rameses II is thought to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Statue from Thebes, now in the British Museum. Credit: Bryant Wood

After the judges, the period of the United Monarchy lasted ca. 120 years (according to the Bible, 40 years each for Saul, David, and Solomon). After the death of Solomon, the kingdom of Israel divided into northern and southern kingdoms, Israel and Judah. From this division to the death of Ahab, using the most probable calculations on divided monarchy chronology, was just short of 80 years.

Combining all of these numbers and assuming only 300 years for the time before the United Monarchy, we see that, if we take the Biblical numbers as realistic, the time between the Exodus and the battle of Qarqar was approximately 500 years. But if we expand the period of the wanderings, conquest, and judges to 400 years, we would need 600 years. The point is this: if Rameses II reigned from 1279 to 1212 BC, as most Egyptologist now believe, there are not enough years for all of the periods mentioned above.

If the Exodus occurred about 1250 BC, in the middle of the reign of Rameses II, there would be about 400 years between him and the Battle of Qarqar. This is at least a full century too little, and perhaps twofull centuries if we use 400 years for the ages between the Exodus and the United Monarchy. Either way, Rameses II is unacceptable.

When calculations of this kind are undertaken, it is a good thing to check our work from a different angle. Today there are those who would abandon orthodox Egyptian chronology and replace it with one of a number of radical reconstructions. While these reconstructions seem totally without merit, it is still worth our while to examine the possibility that Rameses II did not really live in the 13th century BC at all.

Kurkh Stela depicting Shalmaneser III king of Assyria. Found in Kurkh, Turkey, now on display in the British Museum this stone monument records campaigns against the Arameans in Syria. The campaign of year six, 853 BC mentions Ahab, king of Israel, as being a member of an anti-Assyrian coalition that confronted the Assyrians at Qarqar in western Syria. The section referring to Ahab reads, 'I approached the city of Qarqar. I razed, destroyed and burned the city of Qarqar, his [Irhuleni the Hamathite's] royal city. 1,200 chariots, 1,200 cavalry, (and) 20,000 troops of Hadad-ezer (Adadidri) of Damascus 700 chariots, 700 cavalry, (and) 10,000 troops of Irhuleni, the Hamathite 2,000 chariots, (and) 10,000 troops of Ahab, the Israelite. ' (Younger 2000:263).

There is a way to verify the century of Rameses II using the well-know and well-accepted Assyrian chronology. 2 This involves the use of synchronisms, or established contacts between rulers of different nations that prove they were contemporaries. Using the modern world as an example, we know that Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany was a contemporary of Woodrow Wilson, the President of the United Sates. We know that because they fought each other in World War I. Similarly, Robert E. Lee was a contemporary of Abraham Lincoln, for the same reason. They fought each other in a war.

Another form of proof that two rulers were contemporary comes from correspondence. If two men wrote letters to each other, or concluded treaties, they must live at the same time. Or, if they both correspond with a third party, all three must live at the same time. Let us take these principles back to the time of Rameses II.

Rameses II was a great Egyptian king who ruled 67 years, built lavishly, fought wars with the Hittites and other nations, and concluded international treaties. His reign is well known. One of his major accomplishments was a major treaty with the great Hittite king Hattusilis III. We have both the Egyptian and the Hittite versions of this famous document.

Closeup of Shalmaneser III, on the famous Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser found at Nimrud, ancient Calah, Iraq, in 1846. This 2m (6 ½ ft) tall, four-sided polished black stone monument is now on display in the British Museum. Although not mentioning Ahab, the obelisk's cuneiform text does mention another king of Israel. On one side, the second register from the top depicts a man kneeling before Shalmaneser with the inscription, 'Tribute of Jehu son of Omri.' Jehu ruled ca. 841-814 BC and he probably paid tribute to Shalmaneser in the first year of his reign.

Note that in order to formulate such a treaty, both of these kings would have to have ruled at the same time. But the interesting part of all this is the following: Hattusilis III also corresponded with the Assyrian king Shalmaneser I (ca. 1275-1245 BC). Consequently, Shalmaneser I must have been a contemporary of Rameses II as well. And we know roughly how many years there are between Shalmaneser I and his namesake Shalmaneser III: slightly over 400. Since we know that Shalmaneser III lived in the 800's, Shalmaneser I and hence Rameses II must have lived in the 1200's.

One of the Egyptian copies of the treaty between Rameses II and the Hittites carved into a wall of the Temple of Amun at Karnak. After 20 years of fighting, the treaty was concluded in Rameses II's 21st year, ca. 1258 BC, corresponding to the later part of the period of Judges in Biblical history. Thirteen years later the treaty was further cemented by the marriage of a Hittite princess to Rameses II. A Hittite copy of the treaty was discovered on two clay tablets written in Babylonian cuneiform found at the Hittite capital of Boghazköy in Turkey.

In conclusion, it seems nearly impossible to date the Exodus in the times of Rameses II. There is simply not enough time for all the periods of Biblical history between that seminal event and the last years of Ahab, King of Israel.

(Reprinted, with permission, from Artifax 17.2 [2002]:19)

1. For evidence and details for all this, see any standard history of Israel, or a good history of Assyria, such as Saggs, 1990.

2. There are some possible revisions in middle Assyrian chronology, but none of the propose changes extend about a decade.

Bibliography

Saggs, Henry W.F. 1990 The Might That Was Assyria. New York: St. Martins.

Younger, K. Lawson, Jr. 2000 Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions: Shalmaneser III (2.113), Kurkh Monolith (2.113A). Pp. 261-264 in The Context of Scripture 2, ed. William W. Hallo. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.


Watch the video: Black Obelisk - Ave, Caesar Черный Обелиск - Аве, Цезарь