Burns DD- 171 - History

Burns DD- 171 - History

Burns

Otway Burns was born at Queen's Creek, near Swansboro, N. C., in 1775. During the War of 1812 he acquired letters of marque for the privateer Snap Dragon and commanded the fast little schooner on three cruises, having several encounters with British men-of-war, also taking numerous prizes. After the war he engaged in shipbuilding at Beaufort, N. C., and spent 13 years in the General Assembly of North Carolina. In 1835 President Jackson appointed him keeper of the Brant Island Shoal Light, a position he held until his death 25 August 1850.

I

(DD-171: dp. 1191; 1. 314'5"; b. 31'8"; dr. 9'2"; s.
33.8 k.; cpl. 107; a. 4 4", 2 3", 12 21" TT.; cl. Little)

The first Burns (DD-171) was launched 4 July 1918 by Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Calif.; sponsored by Miss Alice H. Palmer; and commissioned 7 August 1919, Commander W. H. Lee in command.

Burns was attached to Destroyer Force, Pacific, until March 1920 when she was ordered to special duty as a tender for NC Seaplane Division. On 15 March 1921 she was reclassitied DM-11 and ox 5 May she was assigned to the Mine Force, Pacific. She was at Mare Island Navy Yard 11 July undergoing conversion and overhaul when her home yard was changed and she departed for the Naval Station, Pearl Harbor, where she completed the yard period. Thereafter, attached to Mine Squadron 2, Pacific Fleet, she served throughout her active service in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands except for periodic concentrations of the Fleet in other areas for maneuvers and Fleet problems.

In 1925 she joined the Fleet for a tour of Australia and New Zealand. In the summers of 1926, 1927, and 1928 she conducted training cruises for Naval Reservists. In 1927 Burns returned to San Diego with her squadron for inspection, training, and recreation. Returning to Pearl Harbor, she participated in mining and gunnery practice, and acted as high-speed target for submarines in Hawaiian waters until November 1929. Arriving at San Diego 26 November, Burns was decommissioned 2 June 1930. On 11 June she was towed to Mare Island Navy Yard where she was used as a barracks-ship. She was later scrapped and her material sold 22 April 1932.


Burns được đặt lườn vào ngày 15 tháng 4 năm 1918 tại xưởng tàu của hãng Union Iron Works ở San Francisco, California. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 4 tháng 7 năm 1918, được đỡ đầu bởi cô Alice H. Palmer, và được đưa ra hoạt động vào ngày 7 tháng 8 năm 1919 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Trung tá Hải quân W. H. Lee.

Burns được phân về Lực lượng Khu trục trực thuộc Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương cho đến tháng 3 năm 1920, khi nó được điều sang nhiệm vụ đặc biệt là tàu tiếp liệu cho liên đội thủy phi cơ NC. Vào ngày 15 tháng 3 năm 1921, nó được xếp lại lớp như một tàu rải mìn với ký hiệu lườn DM-11, và đến ngày 5 tháng 5 được phân về Lực lượng Rải mìn Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương. Nó đang ở tại Xưởng hải quân Mare Island vào ngày 11 tháng 7 để cải biến và đại tu khi cảng nhà của nó được chuyển đến Trân Châu Cảng. Được phân về Hải đội Rải mìn 2, nó phục vụ chủ yếu tại khu vực lân cận quần đảo Hawaii ngoại trừ những đợt tập trung hạm đội tại các khu vực khác để cơ động và tập trận.

Vào năm 1925, Burns gia nhập hạm đội cho một chuyến đi đến Australia và New Zealand. Vào mùa Hè các năm 1926, 1927 và 1928 nó thực hiện các chuyến đi huấn luyện cho nhân sự Hải quân Dự bị Hoa Kỳ. Vào năm 1927, nó đi đến San Diego, California cùng với hải đội của nó để được thanh tra, huấn luyện và nghỉ ngơi. Quay trở lại Trân Châu Cảng, nó tham gia các cuộc thực tập rải mìn và tác xạ, đồng thời phục vụ như một mục tiêu cao tốc cho việc huấn luyện tàu ngầm tại vùng biển Hawaii cho đến tháng 11 năm 1929. Đi đến San Diego vào ngày 26 tháng 12, Burns được cho ngừng hoạt động vào ngày 2 tháng 6 năm 1930. Đến ngày 11 tháng 6, nó được cho kéo đến Xưởng hải quân Mare Island nơi nó được sử dụng như một tàu trại binh. Cuối cùng nó bị tháo dỡ vào ngày 22 tháng 4 năm 1932.


Martial Law Declared

On May 13, a number of the student protesters initiated a hunger strike, which inspired other similar strikes and protests across China. As the movement grew, the Chinese government became increasingly uncomfortable with the protests, particularly as they disrupted a visit by Prime Minister Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union on May 15.

A welcome ceremony for Gorbachev originally scheduled for Tiananmen Square was instead held at the airport, although otherwise his visit passed without incident. Even so, feeling the demonstrations needed to be curtailed, the Chinese government declared martial law on May 20 and 250,000 troops entered Beijing.

By the end of May more than one million protesters had gathered in Tiananmen Square. They held daily marches and vigils, and images of the events were transmitted by media organizations to audiences in the United States and Europe.


How Did Pioneers Treat Burns?

Burn treatments used by pioneers in America are as diverse as the pioneers themselves, coming from a myriad of cultures. It is important to keep a burn sealed and moisturized, so many pioneers used egg whites to coat the burn. Some turned to axle grease, which was made of animal fat and beeswax thinned with turpentine, to create a sterile seal.

Pioneers used strong tea on the burn and even applied a flour sack of calf manure to the burn overnight. In parts of the country, particularly the Southwest, aloe could be found and applied to burns, which is a treatment still used today. Soothing the burn with cool water and wearing a loose bandage around the wound were yet more methods.

The bandaging proved important, as breaking the blisters of a burn makes a wound vulnerable to infection. If a blister was broken, honey was often applied to the area to help keep the wound sterile. Honey is known for its healing properties. It offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound surface and protects against infection. Second- and third-degree burns were prone to infection, and medicine was scarce for many pioneers, making these more serious burns potentially lethal wounds for pioneers.


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Why Pilgrims Arriving in America Resisted Bathing

When the Mayflower Pilgrims arrived in Plymouth in the early 17th century, they didn’t smell terrific, according to Native American򠫌ounts. Unlike the Wampanoag, these Europeans didn’t bathe regularly. A surviving member of the Patuxet nation named Tisquantum (or “Squanto”) even tried and failed to convince them to start washing themselves, according to a 1965 biography.

�thing as you and I know it was very, very uncommon [among western Europeans] until the later part of the 18th century,” says W. Peter Ward, a professor emeritus of history at the University of British Columbia and author of the new book The Clean Body: A Modern History.

This went for people of all social classes. Louis XIV, a 17th-century king of France, is said to have only taken three baths in his entire life. Both rich and poor might wash their faces and hands on a daily or weekly basis, but almost no one in western Europe washed their whole body with any regularity, says Ward. The Separatist Pilgrims and the Puritans who followed them may have even thought that submerging their whole body in water was unhealthy, and that taking all of their clothes off to do so was immodest.

“The idea of being clean wasn’t closely associated with water in the 17th century anywhere in the western world,” Ward says.

Although bathhouses did exist in the colonies, they were not for bathing in the modern sense. Rather, bathhouses were thought of as a kind of medicinal cure, or else a place for wealthy people to relax. In the 1770s, the royal governor of the Colony of Virginia used his bathhouse to cool down on a particularly hot day. And the handful of baths Louis XIV took? Those were on the advice of a doctor, to treat his convulsions.

𠇌leanliness, to the extent that people thought about it in the 17th century, had much more to do with what we now call underwear than anything else,” Ward says. Colonists kept themselves 𠇌lean” by changing the white linens under their clothes. The cleaner and whiter the linens, the cleaner the person—or so the thinking went.

“It was thought that the linen underwear was what really kept the body clean�use it was assumed that the underwear itself was the agent that cleaned the body that it absorbed the body’s impurities and and the dirt and the sweat and so on,” he says.

These linens were supposed to be a little visible around the collar, so that others could see how clean and morally pure the person wearing them was. A Puritan “minister’s distinctive display of white linen marked him as not only a man of God but also a gentleman,” writes Kathleen M. Brown, a professor of history at the University of Pennsylvania, in Foul Bodies: Cleanliness in Early America.

“In an age not characterized by regular full-body bathing,” she continues, “no gentleman wearing white linen at the neck could neglect to change it regularly, for a collar worn for too many days would display his skin’s effusions to the world.”

Puritans also thought that keeping their bed linens clean was a way of keeping their bodies clean. Going to bed without taking off one’s outer clothes was considered unhygienic and immoral. In a letter from 1639, a colonist in Maine accused his maid of being “sluttish” for going � with her Cloth & stockins,” thus dirtying her bed linens.

The Native Americans that colonists encountered had different priorities in terms of hygiene. Like the Wampanoag, most Native Americans bathed openly in rivers and streams. And they also thought it was gross for Europeans to carry their own mucus around in handkerchiefs.

Most Native people’s teeth were also in much better shape than Europeans’. Native people cleaned their mouths using a variety of methods, including brushing their teeth with wooden chew sticks, chewing on fresh herbs like mint to freshen their breath and rubbing charcoal on their teeth to whiten them. In contrast, most Europeans who came over may not have brushed their teeth at all, and had a diet that was generally worse for their oral health.

The colonists’ lack of hygiene was more than just a smelly inconvenience to the Native Americans they encountered. It also posed a very real danger. Unwashed colonists passed along microbes to which Native Americans had no prior exposure, and therefore no immunity.

Historians estimate that European diseases wiped out more than 90 percent of the Native people in coastal New England before 1620, the year the Pilgrims arrived. Over the next few decades, European diseases would wipe out millions more.

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What Are Some Common Northstar Engine Problems?

Some common Northstar engine problems include head gasket failures, excessive oil consumption, knocking or pinging, oil leaks and no oil pressure. Although most of these issues are easy to resolve, Northstar engines are very expensive to repair, and preventative maintenance is critical.

Blown head gaskets are one of the most common problems associated with Northstar engines. Much of this is due to the type of bolts that secure the heads. They're only meant to be used once, and they expand when tightened. Unfortunately, they expand even further during an overheating condition, after which they do not return to normal size. This leaves the head loose on the block, allowing the gasket to blow.

Excessive oil consumption is another issue pre-2000 Northstar engine owners report, with some losing up to a quart of oil in just 500 miles. It's not leaking, but rather burning up in the combustion chambers, due to carbon buildup in the piston ring grooves.

After engineers fixed the oil-consumption problem, a completely different carbon buildup issue developed in engines built from 2000 to 2001. The deposits in these engines get extremely hot, causing knocking or pinging under hard acceleration.

Oil leaks from the rear main seal and valve covers are common on 1996 to1999 engines. The company developed new seals and gaskets to fix these issues.

Engines made from 1993 to 1994 are prone to oil-pressure problems. In many cases, there's virtually no oil pressure due to debris caught between the oil pump's pressure relief valve and its seat. Cleaning up the debris or replacing the pump fixes the problem.


The History and Words of Auld Lang Syne

Auld Lang Syne is a song which thrilled the soul of Robert Burns in the 1780s, and today has become an anthem sung the world over at New Year.

In 1788 the Robert Burns sent the poem 'Auld Lang Syne' to the Scots Musical Museum, indicating that it was an ancient song but that he'd been the first to record it on paper. The phrase 'auld lang syne' roughly translates as 'for old times' sake', and the song is all about preserving old friendships and looking back over the events of the year.

It is sung all over the world, evoking a sense of belonging and fellowship, tinged with nostalgia.

It has long been a much-loved Scottish tradition to sing the song just before midnight. Everyone stands in a circle holding hands, then at the beginning of the final verse ('And there's a hand my trusty friend') they cross their arms across their bodies so that their left hand is holding the hand of the person on their right, and their right hand holds that of the person on their left. When the song ends, everyone rushes to the middle, still holding hands, and probably giggling.

Most Scots know the first verse and the chorus but if you don't, here's the full version:

Should auld acquaintance be forgot,
And never brought to mind?
Should auld acquaintance be forgot,
And auld lang syne.

Chorus:
For auld lang syne, my jo,
For auld lang syne,
We'll tak a cup o' kindness yet,
For auld lang syne,

And surely ye'll be your pint-stowp!
And surely I'll be mine!
And we'll tak a cup o' kindness yet,
For auld lang syne.

We twa hae run about the braes
And pu'd the gowans fine
But we've wander'd mony a weary foot
Sin auld lang syne.

We twa hae paidl'd i' the burn,
Frae mornin' sun till dine
But seas between us braid hae roar'd
Sin auld lang syne.

And there's a hand, my trusty fiere!
And gie's a hand o' thine!
And we'll tak a right guid willy waught,
For auld lang syne.

Should old acquaintance be forgot,
And never brought to mind?
Should old acquaintance be forgot,
And long, long ago.

And for long, long ago, my dear
For long, long ago,
We'll take a cup of kindness yet,
For long, long ago
And surely youll buy your pint-jug!
And surely I'll buy mine!
And we'll take a cup of kindness yet,
For long, long ago.

We two have run about the hills
And pulled the daisies fine
But we've wandered manys the weary foot
Since long, long ago.

We two have paddled in the stream,
From morning sun till dine
But seas between us broad have roared
Since long, long ago.

And there's a hand, my trusty friend!
And give us a hand of yours!
And we'll take a deep draught of good-will
For long, long ago.


RENT CONTROL AND WARTIME HOUSING MARKETS

Federal Rent Control

The expansion of military production in the early 1940s brought large population inflows to many urban areas, with the civilian population more than doubling between 1940 and 1943 in some cities. As early as 1940, rising rents in the areas undergoing industrial expansion drew the attention of the federal government, which feared that rising rents would put upward pressure on wages and reduce labor supply in war production centers. In response to rising prices in many sectors, the Emergency Price Control Act of 1942 established the Office of Price Administration (OPA) as an independent agency, and gave it broad powers to ration goods and to control prices and rents. The discussion that follows, except where noted otherwise, is summarized from Harvey C. Mansfield and Associates (1948).

Rent control was imposed at the level of “defense rental areas,” which were designated by the OPA. After a period of 60 days following this designation, the OPA could impose a ceiling on rents. In most cases, defense rental areas were made up of whole counties or groups of counties because in the urgency of wartime the OPA found more precise delineation of areas undergoing rent increases to be too time-consuming. Initially, the OPA requested surveys of rents from the BLS and Work Projects Administration (WPA) to determine areas in which rising rents threatened the defense program, and designated these areas first. In October 1942, however, the entirety of the rest of the country was designated into defense rental areas and was subject to the imposition of control, although in the end not all areas were actually put under control.

The method of rent control was to set a “maximum rent date” as a base date for freezing rents in each area. The Emergency Price Control Act required that rents in a defense rental area be stabilized at a level prevailing prior to the impact of defense activities. Recognizing that war production affected different areas at different times, the OPA chose a maximum rent date for each defense rental area according to its assessment of when defense production led to rent increases in that area (Porter Reference Porter 1943). Once a base date was chosen, the OPA required every rental unit in the area to be registered. Forms were sent to the landlord for every rental unit to record the rent and services provided on the base date, with a copy sent to the tenant to verify the landlord's report. The maximum legal rent for each dwelling was then set at its level on the base date. Footnote 3

Choice of the base date was flexible except that it had to be the first of a month. In some cases, rents were rolled back by as much as a year and a half, but in general such long rollbacks were found to be problematic. In the first group of cities put under control, in the summer of 1942, a variety of different base dates were used. But by the fall of 1942, a common base date was used for nearly all newly controlled areas. This “default” base date was 1 March 1942, chosen because it was the base date used for other goods under the General Maximum Price Regulation.

The OPA rapidly put an extraordinarily large share of rental housing under control. As shown in Table 1, the counties that had been placed under federal rent control by 1946 had held more than three quarters of the 1940 total population, and 87 percent of the 1940 nonfarm population. Footnote 4 In almost all areas, rent control was imposed and administered by the OPA, rather than local authorities: the few exceptions included Washington, DC, which was covered by its own rent control law passed in December 1941, and Flint, Michigan, which passed an ordinance in 1942.


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