Peace of Copenhagen, 6 June 1660

Peace of Copenhagen, 6 June 1660

Peace of Copenhagen, 6 June 1660

The Peace of Copenhagen of 6 June 1660 ended the Swedish-Danish War of 1658-60. Combined with the Peace of Oliva of 3 May 1660 it ended the Northern War of 1655-60. It also replaced the Peace of Roskilde of 1658 that had ended the previous Swedish-Danish War of 1657-58.

The Peace of Roskilde had seen Denmark surrender its remaining provinces on the southern tip of the Scandinavian Peninsula (Scania, Bohuslän and Blekinge) as well as the island of Bornholm and Trondheim on the Norwegian coast. Danish control over the entrance to the Baltic had been broken, with the shore opposite Copenhagen in Swedish hands.

The war of 1658-60 saw the Danes gain support from Holland, Austria, Brandenburg and Poland-Lithuanian. The death of Charles X of Sweden had ended Swedish enthusiasm for the war. Despite these Swedish setbacks, the terms of the Peace of Copenhagen were still rather generous. Of the provinces lost in 1658 only Bornholm and Trondheim were returned to Denmark. Scania, Bohuslän and Blekinge were retained by the Swedes, giving them a much stronger position in the southern Baltic. The Swedish naval base of Karlskrona would built on the southern shore of Blekinge.

The Quaker Peace Testimony

"We utterly deny all outward wars and strife and fightings with outward weapons, for any end, or under any pretence whatsoever and this is our testimony to the whole world. The spirit of Christ, by which we are guided, is not changeable, so as once to command us from a thing as evil and again to move unto it and we do certainly know, and so testify to the world, that the spirit of Christ, which leads us into all Truth, will never move us to fight and war against any man with outward weapons, neither for the kingdom of Christ, nor for the kingdoms of this world."

Declaration of Friends to Charles II, 1660

The Copenhagen Summit for Democracy: the new Nazis

On May 10-11 a conference was presented by the “Alliance of Democracies” in Copenhagen that claimed to “unite free peoples” against authoritarianism, to promote the rule of law, to advance the “technological control of democracy,” freedom of expression and U.S. leadership. It was heralded as a forum for guests to hear from prominent individuals on “the frontlines of defending democracy.”

But the true purpose of the Summit was revealed by the opening invitation from the 12th NATO Secretary General (2009-2014) and 24th Danish Prime Minister (2001-2009), Anders Fogh Rasmussen, who celebrated the fact that the first Summit in 2018 was opened by Joe Biden and by the fact that it was moderated by Politico’s Ryan Heath and former ABC and CNN correspondent, Jeanne Meserve, who if not assets of the CIA, acted as if they were.

In an opening video, still on their website inviting people to attend, Rasmussen claims that the USA is the “defender of democracy” against oppression and then immediately cited Belarus, Myanmar, Hong Kong, Taiwan as places where ‘democracy is under threat.” Rasmussen played his role of piper of the NATO propagandists to the end and the clearly scripted and small audience in attendance dutifully played along.

At the opening of the conference Rasmussen once again claimed that the U.S. led the “democracies against “authoritarianism “ without defining what the latter word means. What government is not an authority? What government does not have laws and mechanisms of government that the citizens are to follow and obey? Is the American police state, the state in which 3 people are killed by the police every day not an “authoritarian state” a state in which only two parties, with almost no difference between them, are allowed to vie for power, and in which the media are completely controlled by the secret services and their link to the corporate powers that control the government, not “authoritarian”?

And are not the socialist democracies of China, of Cuba, Vietnam, Venezuela, and the capitalist democracies of Russia and other nations unwilling to bend to the will of the USA also democracies? Of course they are and the socialist democracies provide the people with more ability to have a say in government decisions than our parliamentary style democracies.

So, we understand that Rasmussen is misusing language to fool people so that they cannot see behind the veil and realise that he represents the powers of capital that want to control the world and by “democracy” he really means, the free flow of western capital, and by “authoritarian” he means any nation that refuses to be controlled by western capital.

He went on to state that the “western democracies, and NATO,” the armed fist of western capital, “actively support “protestors in Hong Kong, Myanmar, Belarus, Venezuela, Belarus in their “desire for freedom” Some freedom, some desire. Freedom to overthrow socialism, all progress for working people, for the poor of the world, freedom to overthrow even capitalist states that do not obey the orders of western capital.

He then called for what he called a Copenhagen Charter, modelled on the Atlantic Charter that created NATO, and having a clause 5 similar to NATO’s Article 5, whereby any western democracy threatened by for example China, can call on its allies to take retaliatory measure against the alleged offending country. This idea is to be brought forward at a World Democracy Summit to be opened by President Biden later this year. He used as an illustration the mild sanctions that China placed on some U.S. and European personalities in response to their economic warfare and sanctions placed on China. Of course Rasmussen never mentioned that it is the USA and its allies that are the ones dictating to the world what to do, using their military and economic power to assert their claimed authority over the world, who are, in fact the supreme authoritarians of the world.

In case viewers did not yet understand who was running the show Rasmussen stated that, “US leadership is crucial” and the “purpose of this Summit is to “provide ideas to President Biden for the global summit conference” later this year.

He then introduced a series of American sycophants. I will not burden you with all of them, as you can watch the conference for yourselves on their website. I will draw your attention to those that set the tone and the main focus of the conference so you get the sense of it.

The first person of note was the President of Slovakia, Zusana Caputova, who blathered on about the “importance of the rule of law” to an audience who all support the American violations of international law around the world, American aggression around the world, and who have nothing but contempt for international law, the sovereignty of nations, and like a dutiful minion of the hegemonic power declared that the countries that challenge their “rules based order,” that is, the American dictatorship, must be condemned and forced to relent.

She ended by stating that, “supporting activists in Hong Kong is not foreign interference in China’s internal affairs.” This, from a flunky for the Americans, who have been using the false claims of Russian and Chinese interference in their internal affairs to bang the drums of war against those two nations for several years.

But then something surprising occurred, The next speaker, Nico Jaspers, CEO of the polling organization, LATANA, stated that his organisations polls showed that, world wide, the United States was seen as the greatest threat to democracy and as creating the greatest economic inequality for its citizens than any other nation.

You could hear a pin drop as he spoke and the confused looks on the audience present. But he covered himself in an acceptable way by agreeing with the suggestion by the odious Jeanne Meserve that this perception was no doubt a glitch due to the terrible reign of Donald Trump and that, under Biden, all would be well.

Then came Uffe Elbaeka Danish Member of Parliament who echoed the previous speakers and also declared Denmark’s support for the Hong Kong “activists that is the 5tth columnists in Hong Kong working for western intelligence agencies whose sole purpose is not the betterment of the lives of people in China, but the destruction of the Chinese Communist Party and China as a sovereign state. He ended his speech with a call to boycott the Beijing Olympic Games.

Tom Tugendhat, head of the UK Parliament’s Foreign Affairs Committee, continued the attack on China and the Communist Party, and though he had to acknowledge that the Communists had brought prosperity to China he was evidently angry that they did and the capitalists did not, and stated that economic prosperity “is no good under an authoritarian regime.” This from a man who comes from a nation that saw millions flee as immigrants to other countries after World War Two due to economic hardship, and whose people today are barely able to cover their bills, and when they cannot sleep rough on the street, a nation that became powerful by colonising large areas of the world, including India where they reduced the people to poverty they are still struggling to escape and which ruled Hong Kong during its occupation as a fiefdom without any democracy whatsoever.

He exemplified the overpowering hypocrisy of the event when asked what the thinks of the recently imposed sanctions by China by stating,

Sanctions are an attack on the people that impose them, they come back to bite you.

He said this with all earnestness as if he actually believed the nonsense coming out of his mouth, this man whose nation has joined in all the sanctions imposed on many countries by the USA around the world. When one hears someone talking about a reality that does not exist it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the speaker is delusional. But so it is.

This charade turned into farce with the next series of speaker the first being Tsai Ing-Wen, who was introduced as “the President of the Republic of China”, who referred Taiwan as a “country” instead of the Chinese province it is, and who called on the USA to enhance Taiwan’s defence and raved on about “fighting socialism and authoritarianism.”

Then followed members of parliament from, France, the EU, Japan and Australia who repeated the attacks on China who were then followed by the presentation of Juan Guaido as the “Interim President of Venezuela,” news I am sure to Venezuelans, then Nathan Law the Hong Kong 5th columnist working with the British in London, who was touted as a “leader of the democratic opposition,” by Wai Wai Nu, touted as the same for Burma, the western, colonial name for Myanmar, and finally Sviatlana Tskhanouskaya, the insurrectionist NATO asset who was introduced as “the Leader of Democratic Belarus.”

The theatre continued with a series of speakers calling for the control of social media, in order, of course, to “ensure free speech,” and to prevent “foreign interference.” The fact that all the speakers before them had called for foreign interference into the affairs of China, Russia, Venezuela, Myanmar, Belarus was lost on them.

The first day ended with the Deputy Prime Minister of Ukraine, Olha Stefanishyna, appearing in order to beg that Ukraine be admitted to NATO and the EU so that Ukraine can be protected against “Russian aggression.” In seeming support of her plea, next appeared U.S. head of Homeland Security, Michael Chertoff, who repeated the false claims of Russian interference in the dubious U.S. elections, then by American Army General McMaster, National Security Adviser, and talking head at the right wing Hoover Institute, who began his comments by attacking President Trump as an ‘enemy of democracy.”

It would seem the USA is about to enter a period of one party rule if the Democrats get their way. But you see, one party rule in that case is “ensuring a return to democracy in the USA.”

He continued by attacking the rule of he Communist Party of China as ‘undemocratic,” declared that the CCP is America and the worlds “top enemy,” thereby admitting that the struggle between capitalism and communism is far from over, and then demanded that China release the two Canadians detained on spy charges. He said nothing about the kidnapping and holding hostage of the Chief Financial Officer of Huawei, Meng Wanzhou, detained in Canada for two years on fabricated U.S. charges of violating the illegal U.S. sanctions against Iran.

The day ended with more propaganda, this time against Russia from Adam Schiff, Chair of the U.S. House Intelligence Committee, who falsely accused Russia of spreading false information and called for the need to “formalise the link between the western intelligence services and social media, in other words total control of social media by the secret services, and lastly Lisa Peterson, the new U.S. Ambassador for Human Rights for Biden who blathered on in the same manner about human rights everywhere except in the USA.

The second day of the Summit was dedicated to a series of young people from the eastern nations that had once been part of the USSR, from Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Romania, and a couple from small Latin American U.S. allies, all computer programmers, who had been assigned projects to develop systems and platforms to manipulate elections, to detect and eliminate “fake news,” and “malign actions,” who all used the example of alleged “Russian influence” on U.S. and UK elections in their remarks and the threat to democracy represented by Donald Trump. Their entire line was that social media needs to be controlled, that elections have to be run “properly,” code for producing a desired outcome that peoples thoughts and actions must be controlled and predictable.

All through the two days of the event it struck me that I was watching a conference of Nazis. They wore different style clothing than did Hitler and his forces in the 30s and 40s but they spoke the same way, talked the same way, are as ruthless and murderous as the Nazis, have the same objectives as Hitler, the destruction and occupation of Russia, China, Europe, the world who pretend they are democrats but are themselves the ones who want to create a totalitarian world state, that is a state under the total control of the USA and its vassals, are willing to commit any crime to do it, and who care nothing for the lives of those they destroy.

What were the Nazis in Germany but the armed, violent fist of German capital, intent on wiping out socialism, the rights of labour, of dominating and exploiting the world, who are expert at creating division among peoples, of using bigotry and prejudice for their ends as the Nazis did with the Jews and others. They too drew on the forces of fascism from all the dark corners of Europe and the world to support their aggression and crimes.

Since the USSR collapsed their forces have ruthlessly destroyed country after country and are now advancing on Russia and China. But just as Hitler got what was coming to him, so these new Nazis, who want it all, want to put the whole word under their boots, will end up with nothing. In trying to destroy they will be destroyed, so long as we are on guard. Their conferences reveal them for what they are, black shirts with the smiles of sharks. Mac the Knife is back in town. Be warned. Be prepared.

Today in High Prairie: June 6, 2021

Today in High Prairie! See what’s happening today in town, local birthdays, celebrity birthdays, local history, world history and your daily horoscope. Please send your birthdays and community events to [email protected] and [email protected]

What’s Happening Today – June 6, 2021

Today’s Local Birthdays – High Prairie – June 6, 2021

Today’s Local Birthdays – Faust – June 6, 2021

Today’s Celebrity Birthdays – June 6, 2021

1790 – Alexander Pushkin, Russian writer/poet

1867 – David Abercrombie, Abercrombie & Fitch founder

1868 – Robert Scott, Failed South Pole expedition

1890 – Dorothy Heyward, Porgy playwright

1901 – Sukarno, 1st President of Indonesia

1903 – Aram Khachaturian, Sabre Dance composer

1912 – María Montez, “Queen of Technicolor”

1917 – Kirk Kerkorian, “Father of the Mega-Resort”

1926 – Tom Ryan, Tumbleweeds cartoonist

1931 – Lloyd Lindroth, “The Liberace of the Harp”

1936 – Levi Stubbs, 4 Tops baritone singer

1939 – Gary U.S. Bonds, US blues singer

1942 – Howie Kane, Jay & the Americans rocker

1946 – Chelsea Brown, Laugh-In comedienne

1946 – Lasse Hallström, ABBA writer/director

1955 – Sandra Bernhard, Roseanne actress [Nancy]

1956 – Bjorn Borg, Swedish tennis pro

1960 – Steve Vai, David Lee Roth’s guitarist

1961 – Dee C. Lee, Wham! Musician

1969 – François Avard, Canadian writer and scenarist

1975 – Staci Keanan, My Two Dads actress

1987 – Daniel Logan, Star Wars Episode II actor

This Day in Local History: June 6, 2021

June 6, 1914: The Grouard News reports the removal of the current post office is underway and moved to a present site to Demer’s Block. Hours of service are from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m.

June 6, 1972: High Prairie residents go to the polls to decide whether or not to allow the Park Hotel to serve spirits in its licensed premises. The local Ministerial Association opposes the request but it passes 532-99.

June 6, 1969: The first High Prairie Invitational Track and Field Meet is held by the Prairie River and St. Andrew’s schools. Peace River T.A. Norris School also attends. Prairie River wins the meet. John O’Brien is named best boy athlete while Lynn Wood is best girl athlete.

June 6, 1973: South Peace News reports that the High Prairie Recreation Board is proposing a new park just north of the Stampede Grounds.

June 6, 1973: South Peace News reports the Peace River Health Unit reports that cases of VD are up 61 per cent in the area. High Prairie reported the most cases at 100.

June 6, 1973: South Peace News reports that the Town of High Prairie has been dumping raw sewage into the West Prairie River for over a year.

June 6, 1990: South Peace News reports the Kinuso Marina is “”an unfinished hole” in the ground that needs $250,000 to complete.

June 6, 1990: For the first time in its history, South Peace News wins a national community newspaper award. South Peace News places third for Best Sports Section in the under 3,999 circulation class.

June 6, 1990: South Peace News reports that Jerry Cunningham is chosen to play on the Northern Alberta Peewee All-Star team at the Vancouver Super Series hockey tournament.

June 6, 1992: St. Andrew’s School holds its first Grade 12 graduation in 25 years as three graduate.

June 6, 1993: Erwin Marx wins the High Prairie Open Tennis Tournament.

June 6, 2001: The High Prairie Max Badboys score a run in the bottom of the seventh inning to defeat the visiting Peace River Ruel Brothers 4-3 in Wheatbelt Baseball League action.

June 6, 2001: St. Andrew’s School students Dalton Tallman and Robin Ha are named winners of the Charles Dumont Memorial Trophy.

June 6, 2006: Peace Country Health chooses land owned by H.P. Farm Supply for the new High Prairie Hospital. Owner Nick Shybunia, speaking on behalf of the family, is pleased with the decision.

June 6, 2006: Lyndsey Greer wins the Premier’s Citizenship Award at the E.W. Pratt High School Awards ceremony.

June 6, 2006: Former M.D. of Big Lakes employee and Holy Family Catholic Regional School Division employee Ian Becker loses his battle with cancer. An age is not disclosed.

June 6, 2007: The High Prairie Community Health Council lobbies for medical transport to serve the area’s needs.

June 6, 2007: Peace Country Health chair Marvin Moore says a “handshake agreement” has been made to construct the new hospital on land owned by Peavine Metis Settlement in High Prairie’s east end.

June 6, 2007: long-time High Prairie resident Mike Marczyk dies at the age of 66 after succumbing to cancer.

June 6, 2007: High Prairie Vision Centre is recognized by the Better Business Bureau for a 15-year commitment to trustworthy and reliable business service.

June 6, 2007: The High Prairie Air Cadet Squadron holds Annual Inspection for the first time in many years without Commanding Officer Sheila Hiron, who died of cancer earlier in the year.

June 6, 2008: Gift Lake School and many others from the community take part in the settlement’s third anal Walk Against Drugs.

June 6, 2009: Boondock’s Grill is the site of a very successful night out featuring an authentic Arabic meal and belly dancing from Connie Sabo’s belly dancers.

June 6, 2009: The High Prairie Legion decides the 65th anniversary of D-Day is the right time to unveil its new cenotaph at the Legion.

June 6, 2009: South Peace News earns an Alberta Weekly Newspapers Association award in the Best Editorial category, placing second.

June 6, 2009: High Prairie hosts the Alberta 55+ Seniors Games playoffs in bocce ball at Jaycee Park.

June 6, 2009: The East Peace 4-H District Achievement Day is held at the High Prairie Agriplex. Dana Iwasiuk raises the Grand Champion steer.

June 6, 2010: South Peace News reports on the financial troubles of The Movie Gallery, which would close their store in High Prairie by year’s end.

June 6, 2010: NPHL president Jack McAvoy announces the Horse Lake Thunder is accepted into the NPHL for play in its 2010-11 season. The vote is not disclosed.

June 6, 2011: The High Prairie Royal Bank opens under extended hours from 9:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday to Thursday and 9:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. Friday.

June 6, 2011: Jessica Rose is presented with the Fred Spendiff Scholarship, awarded annually to the student who exemplifies dedication, determination, integrity and courtesy to school, sport and the community.

June 6, 2012: Kaylee Hawley and Samantha Stokes are featured in South Peace News in their pursuit to become High Prairie Elks Pro Rodeo Queen.

June 6, 2013: The M.D. of Big Lakes announces it’s adding the names of Annette Charrois, Ray Duchesneau and Louisa Rich to its Wall of Fame.

June 6, 2015: The annual High Prairie Street Festival attracts a crowd of over 1,000.

June 6, 2015: E.W. Pratt’s Montana Blackwell wins a silver medal in Junior Men’s Javelin at the Alberta High School Track and Field Championships in Lethbridge. His toss is 43.44 metres.

June 6, 2015: Josh Loewen raises the District Grand Champion steer at the East Peace 4-H District Show and Sale at the High Prairie Agriplex.

June 6, 2016: A safety clinic is held at the Q Skate Plaza over concerns that not enough people using the park are wearing helmets.

June 6, 2018: For the second time, the High Prairie & Area Chamber of Commerce annual general meeting is postponed. Only half the executive was available to attend, no new date was announced.

June 6-7, 2019: Northern Lakes College graduation ceremonies scheduled for High Prairie are postponed due to northern Alberta wildfires.

This Day in World History – June 6, 2021

1242 – 24 wagonloads of Talmudic books burned in Paris.

1536 – Mexico begins its inquisition.

1752 – Third great fire in Moscow in 2 weeks 1/3 of city destroyed.

1795 – Fire destroys 1/3 of Copenhagen 18,000 injured.

1844 – Young Men’s Christian Association [YMCA] formed by George Williams.

1882 – Electric iron patented by Henry W. Seely.

1914 – First air flight out of sight of land [Scotland to Norway].

1919 – Assent is given to an Act to amend the Canadian Currency Act, 1910.

1925 – Walter Chrysler founds automobile manufacturer Chrysler Corporation.

1933 – First drive-in theater opens in Camden, New Jersey.

1936 – Aviation gasoline first produced commercially in New Jersey.

1941 – Giants use plastic batting helmets for 1st time.

1942 – First nylon parachute jump occurs.

1944 – Baseball cancels all games honoring D-Day invasion.

1946 – Henry Morgan is first to take off shirt on TV.

1949 – “It Pays To Be Ignorant” game show debut on CBS-TV.

1960 – Roy Orbison releases “Only the Lonely”.

1965 – Rolling Stones release single “I Can’t Get No Satisfaction”.

1966 – NFL & AFL announce their merger.

1971 – “Ed Sullivan Show” last broadcasts on CBS-TV.

1972 – Explosion at world’s largest coal mine in Rhodesia kills 427.

1972 – Gold hits record $60 an ounce in London.

1981 – Maya Yang Lin wins competition to design the Vietnam War Memorial.

1983 – Bottle with note of June 9, 1910 found in Queensland, Australia.

1984 – Video game Tetris is first released in the Soviet Union.

1988 – Three giant turtles found in Bronx sewage plant.

1991 – Dana Plato gets 6-yr suspended sentence for robbing a video store.

1998 – TV sitcom “Sex and the City” premieres in the US on HBO.

2012 – Transit of Venus [between Earth & sun] occurs – last in 21st century.

Today’s Horoscopes – June 6, 2021

Aries [March 21 – April 20] – Social events or group activities could put you in touch with a lot of people, both close friends and casual acquaintances. A new person may come into your life who makes a difference for you. Issues may come up that you feel strongly about, and you aren’t likely to hesitate about expressing your opinions. This is fine, as you will be tactful and others will appreciate your sincerity.

Taurus [April 21 – May 21] – You should feel physically strong and energetic today and ready to take on just about anything that comes your way. This is good, as you may be presented with some powerful challenges that bring new purpose to your life. Excitement and enthusiasm permeate your entire being right now. Anything that comes your way you’re likely to face with determination, undeterred by the enormity of the task.

Gemini [May 22 – June 21] – Spiritual passion is tempered by romantic desire today, and you’re likely to want to pursue both. Perhaps your romantic partner is as spiritually inclined as you, and you both aspire to the same ends. Much of the passion you feel wells up from deep within. If you’re in any way creatively inclined, you may want to remember these feelings through writing, painting, or music.

Cancer [June 22 – July 22] – If you’re currently romantically involved, you can expect your relationship to move to the next level of commitment. You and your partner could agree to be monogamous, get engaged, or set a wedding date. If you’re married, you might decide to have a child. If you aren’t involved, expect to attract someone soon. You’re ready, and eligible partners are definitely registering your availability!

Leo [July 23 – Aug. 23] – An invitation to an important social event could come today. This could represent a chance to meet important people who could advance your career or who might be involved in a field that interests you. Your energy and enthusiasm won’t be lost on these people, or anyone for that matter, as you will obviously be speaking from the heart when you discuss what’s on your mind.

Virgo [Aug. 24 – Sept. 22] – A previously untapped talent could emerge today. You may decide to train this talent and foster a skill that can help you with any type of work you will do. This is definitely the day for it, as you should be full of energy and enthusiasm, capable of assuming any task, however formidable. Physically, you should feel strong and well. This is a day full of challenges and new enterprises.

Libra [Sept. 23 – Oct. 23] – Romantic passion might motivate you to work on improving your appearance. You might decide to exercise, change your diet, and experiment with new clothing styles. You’re likely to produce the results you want. With the energy and enthusiasm churning within you today, you might surprise yourself with this task or anything else you do.

Scorpio [Oct. 24 – Nov. 22] – You’ll wake up ready to take on the world. Excitement, enthusiasm, and purpose will fill your soul, yet you might wonder where it comes from, as nothing has changed since yesterday. Don’t waste time mulling over it! Harness it! Tackle a class or exercise program. Start a project. This energy is generated from deep in the subconscious, but should be channeled into the conscious world!

Sagittarius [Nov. 23 – Dec. 21] – Information gleaned from friends could have you focusing on a new goal. You may have a lot of ideas about projects you want to take care of, and today you might realize which one has top priority. Start moving! Whatever you choose to do, find out what you need before you start. There’s a chance you might waste time running around trying to find necessary materials.

Capricorn [Dec. 22 – Jan. 20] – The universe is inviting you magnify your vision. It’s time to see the bigger, better, more advanced side of things. Remember that life is a mirror. You’re highly unlikely to receive more than you hope for. Dream big, hope big, and imagine yourself in the stars. Don’t sell yourself short. It’s a misuse of humility and modesty.

Aquarius [Jan. 21 – Feb. 18] – You should feel especially emotional today, reacting strongly to nearly everything you see, whether a photo of a natural disaster, a group of children, or a kitten sitting on a doorstep. Spiritually, you’re highly motivated and longing to know more about worlds beyond this one. You might long to make a pilgrimage, perhaps to a holy shrine or other sacred place. If you’re serious, make plans.

Pisces [Feb. 19 – March 20] – Dreams and visions might come and go today, as unconscious drives and images surface. Some of these impressions could represent old traumas or phobias that need to be released. You could also draw creative inspiration from these perceptions and use them as a basis for artistic projects. By day’s end you may feel much lighter – emotionally, at least!

67 Years In The Peace Movement

I would like to announce the publication of a book which discusses the things that I have experienced during my 67 years of work in the peace movement. The book may be freely downloaded and circulated from the following link:

Holger Terp’s invitation

Seven years ago, Holger Terp, the founder and web editor of the Danish Peace Academy, invited me to write something about my 60 years of work in the peace movement. I gladly accepted his invitation, because I was 81 years old, and in poor health. I thought that I might not have another opportunity to write about my experiences in the peace movement. The most rewarding thing about working for peace is that it allows you to meet really wonderful people, and what I wrote at Holger’s invitation is mainly about the fantastic friends with whom I was privileged to work.

Seven years later

Now, seven years later, I am almost 88 years old, still with serious health problems, and during the last two years, also with failing eyesight, but miraculously still alive. I have written a great deal during the last seven years, and almost all have been about the serious problems that are facing the world today.

Between 2014 and 2018, I wrote primarily articles and essays for Countercurrents, TMS Weekly Digest and Human Wrongs Watch. The editors of these important alternative news sites, Binu Mathew, Antonio C.S. Rosa and Baher Kamal, whose heroic and dedicated work I very

greatly admire, accepted my work, and so I wrote almost one article every week for them. I also wrote longer essays for the two journals of the World Academy of Art and Science, Cadmus and Erudito.

Later, from 2019 until 2021, I wrote fewer articles and essays, and more books. The extremely distinguished theoretical physicist, Professor Pervez Hoodbhoy, has an educational website:

I knew Professor Hoodbhoy a little because we had both attended many meetings of Pugwash Conferences, and through him I became aware of his splendid website dedicated to public education. I began to submit my books on serious global problems to this website and they can be downloaded free of charge and circulated from the following address:

Many of my articles are also available from this website, and some of my scientific books and articles can be found there too.

Other books and articles about global problems are on these links

I hope that you will circulate the links in this article to friends and contacts who might be interested.

Trinity Parish celebrating 200-years of history with Charleston SC

Charleston, South Carolina is known as the “Holy City” because, from the time it was founded in 1670, it has been tolerant of the various religious beliefs of the citizens. The Holy City has a deep connection to “America’s Oldest City”, the City of St Augustine, founded in 1565. Several churches in St Augustine can trace their roots back to Charleston, including Trinity Parish. The Episcopal Parish is recognized for being the oldest Protestant church in the state.

As Historic City News reporters learned, in 1821, leaders of the various religious denominations decided to start their St Augustine churches. They wrote to the established churches in Charleston, asking them to send three people: a schoolteacher, a librarian, and a missionary.

“We have no idea if the schoolteacher and librarian showed up, but Andrew Fowler immediately got on a boat and sailed the three days south to St Augustine. The Episcopalians just happened to come first,” pointed out Reverend Matt Marino, rector at Trinity Parish, now celebrating its bicentennial. “I think that every church in St Augustine has some sort of tie back to Charleston.”

As the missionaries traveled from Charleston to St Augustine, in 1821, the yellow fever epidemic was forming in our city. In 1921, just 100 years ago, St Augustine found itself defending against the ravages of the Spanish Flu. Now, 200 years since the Charleston missionary visit, we are fighting once again — this time it is the novel coronavirus, COVID-19.

Marino was eager to tell the story of the founding of his church during an interview that was produced by a local television station in Charleston to be broadcast for Easter. Charleston is a beautiful city any day, but right now at Easter, with the azaleas and other flowers blooming, it is stunning. Dr. Roger Smith also participated. As the museum director at the Ximenez-Fatio House, he knows his St Augustine history as well.

Marino went on to give a glimpse into the Charlestonian’s character.

  • “When he arrived, they refused to let Fowler off the boat because they were in the middle of the Yellow Fever epidemic,” Marino explained. “Yellow fever was spreading rapidly through town, but Fowler’s faith compelled him to help.”
  • According to Marino, the 61-year-old Fowler insisted, “You take me in or I’m going to swim ashore.” Call it luck or divine intervention, the minister never contracted yellow fever. “It was at a time when catching yellow fever was very easy to do — and, Fowler escaped,” Dr. Smith reflected. Reverend Fowler stayed in St Augustine for about a month.
  • Reverend Marino and Dr Smith told reporters how Fowler ministered to any Christian after he arrived in St Augustine. In his way of working with everyone as he could, he gave last rites to over 90 Catholic parishioners. Fowler later wrote that even though he was Protestant, he wanted those victims to die with peace of mind and comfort.

After they got the yellow fever under control, Fowler started preaching and gathering a congregation. Those were the roots for Trinity Episcopal Parish on the town plaza across from the Catholic Basilica.

Dr. Smith added, “This was the first time that an American Protestant church had been founded in what we know as the entire state of Florida, it had always been Spanish and therefore Catholic, or when we were British, it was the Church of England.”

“We were started in an epidemic and the church always is at its best under pressure and struggle,” Reverend Marino said, realizing the irony of his response. “I know that is also true in Charleston, given conversations I’m having with other pastors here in St Augustine.”

Dr Smith was asked about the irony between the Yellow Fever, 200 years ago, and the COVID-19 pandemic today. He talked about how history is stranger than fantasy, then his eyes lit up.

“We found at the Ximenez-Fatio House, an authentic Caravaca Cross, which the Catholic Church commissioned in the 1660’s. It was produced to celebrate the end of the plague that had ravished Europe, Smith said. “Believe me when this pandemic is over, we’re having a “Caravaca Cross Party” here at the Ximenez-Fatio house!”

Peace of Copenhagen, 6 June 1660 - History

Early Colonial Era
Beginnings to 1700

1000 A.D. - Leif Ericson, a Viking seaman, explores the east coast of North America and sights Newfoundland, establishing a short-lived settlement there.

1215 - The Magna Carta document is adopted in England, guaranteeing liberties to the English people, and proclaiming basic rights and procedures which later become the foundation stone of modern democracy.

1492 - Christopher Columbus makes the first of four voyages to the New World, funded by the Spanish Crown, seeking a western sea route to Asia. On October 12, sailing the Santa Maria, he lands in the Bahamas, thinking it is an outlying Japanese island.

1497 - John Cabot of England explores the Atlantic coast of Canada, claiming the area for the English King, Henry VII. Cabot is the first of many European explorers to seek a Northwest Passage (northern water route) to Asia.

1499 - Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, sights the coast of South America during a voyage of discovery for Spain.

1507 - The name "America" is first used in a geography book referring to the New World with Amerigo Vespucci getting credit for the discovery of the continent.

1513 - Ponce de León of Spain lands in Florida.

1517 - Martin Luther launches the Protestant Reformation in Europe, bringing an end to the sole authority of the Catholic Church, resulting in the growth of numerous Protestant religious sects.

1519 - Hernando Cortés conquers the Aztec empire.

1519-1522 - Ferdinand Magellan is the first person to sail around the world.

1524 - Giovanni da Verrazano, sponsored by France, lands in the area around the Carolinas, then sails north and discovers the Hudson River, and continues northward into Narragansett Bay and Nova Scotia.

1541 - Hernando de Soto of Spain discovers the Mississippi River.

1565 - The first permanent European colony in North America is founded at St. Augustine (Florida) by the Spanish.

1587 - The first English child, Virginia Dare, is born in Roanoke, August 18.

1588 - In Europe, the defeat of the Spanish Armada by the English results in Great Britain replacing Spain as the dominant world power and leads to a gradual decline of Spanish influence in the New World and the widening of English imperial interests.

1606 - The London Company sponsors a colonizing expedition to Virginia.

1607 - Jamestown is founded in Virginia by the colonists of the London Company. By the end of the year, starvation and disease reduce the original 105 settlers to just 32 survivors. Capt. John Smith is captured by Native American Chief Powhatan and saved from death by the chief's daughter, Pocahontas.

1608 - In January, 110 additional colonists arrive at Jamestown. In December, the first items of export trade are sent from Jamestown back to England and include lumber and iron ore.

1609 - The Dutch East India Company sponsors a seven month voyage of exploration to North America by Henry Hudson. In September he sails up the Hudson River to Albany.

1609 - Native tobacco is first planted and harvested in Virginia by colonists.

1613 - A Dutch trading post is set up on lower Manhattan island.

1616 - Tobacco becomes an export staple for Virginia.

1616 - A smallpox epidemic decimates the Native American population in New England.

1619 - The first session of the first legislative assembly in America occurs as the Virginia House of Burgesses convenes in Jamestown. It consists of 22 burgesses representing 11 plantations.

1619 - Twenty Africans are brought by a Dutch ship to Jamestown for sale as indentured servants, marking the beginning of slavery in Colonial America.

1620 - November 9, the Mayflower ship lands at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, with 101 colonists. On November 11, the Mayflower Compact is signed by the 41 men, establishing a form of local government in which the colonists agree to abide by majority rule and to cooperate for the general good of the colony. The Compact sets the precedent for other colonies as they set up governments.

1620 - The first public library in the colonies is organized in Virginia with books donated by English landowners.

1621 - One of the first treaties between colonists and Native Americans is signed as the Plymouth Pilgrims enact a peace pact with the Wampanoag Tribe, with the aid of Squanto, an English speaking Native American.

1624 - Thirty families of Dutch colonists, sponsored by the Dutch West India Company arrive in New York.

1624 - The Virginia Company charter is revoked in London and Virginia is declared a Royal colony.

1626 - Peter Minuit, a Dutch colonist, buys Manhattan island from Native Americans for 60 guilders (about $24) and names the island New Amsterdam.

1629 - In England, King Charles I dissolves parliament and attempts to rule as absolute monarch, spurring many to leave for the American colonies.

1630 - In March, John Winthrop leads a Puritan migration of 900 colonists to Massachusetts Bay, where he will serve as the first governor. In September, Boston is officially established and serves as the site of Winthrop's government.

1633 - The first town government in the colonies is organized in Dorchester, Massachusetts.

1634 - First settlement in Maryland as 200 settlers, many of them Catholic, arrive in the lands granted to Roman Catholic Lord Baltimore by King Charles I.

1635 - Boston Latin School is established as the first public school in America.

1636 - In June, Roger Williams founds Providence and Rhode Island. Williams had been banished from Massachusetts for "new and dangerous opinions" calling for religious and political freedoms, including separation of church and state, not granted under the Puritan rules. Providence then becomes a haven for many other colonists fleeing religious intolerance.

1636 - Harvard College founded.

1638 - Anne Hutchinson is banished from Massachusetts for nonconformist religious views that advocate personal revelation over the role of the clergy. She then travels with her family to Rhode Island.

1638 - The first colonial printing press is set up in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1640-1659 - English Civil War erupts between the Royalists of King Charles I and the Parliamentary army, eventually resulting in defeat for the Royalists and the downfall of the monarchy. On January 30, 1649, Kings Charles I is beheaded. England then becomes a Commonwealth and Protectorate ruled by Oliver Cromwell.

1646 - In Massachusetts, the general court approves a law that makes religious heresy punishable by death.

1652 - Rhode Island enacts the first law in the colonies declaring slavery illegal.

1660 - The English monarchy is restored under King Charles II.

1660 - The English Crown approves a Navigation Act requiring the exclusive use of English ships for trade in the English Colonies and limits exports of tobacco and sugar and other commodities to England or its colonies.

1663 - King Charles II establishes the colony of Carolina and grants the territory to eight loyal supporters.

1663 - Navigation Act of 1663 requires that most imports to the colonies must be transported via England on English ships.

1664 - The Dutch New Netherland colony becomes English New York after Gov. Peter Stuyvesant surrenders to the British following a naval blockade.

1664 - Maryland passes a law making lifelong servitude for black slaves mandatory to prevent them from taking advantage of legal precedents established in England which grant freedom under certain conditions, such as conversion to Christianity. Similar laws are later passed in New York, New Jersey, the Carolinas and Virginia.

1672 - The Royal Africa Company is given a monopoly in the English slave trade.

1673 - Dutch military forces retake New York from the British.

1673 - The British Navigation Act of 1673 sets up the office of customs commissioner in the colonies to collect duties on goods that pass between plantations.

1674 - The Treaty of Westminster ends hostilities between the English and Dutch and returns Dutch colonies in America to the English.

1675-1676 - King Philip's War erupts in New England between colonists and Native Americans as a result of tensions over colonist's expansionist activities. The bloody war rages up and down the Connecticut River valley in Massachusetts and in the Plymouth and Rhode Island colonies, eventually resulting in 600 English colonials being killed and 3,000 Native Americans, including women and children on both sides. King Philip (the colonist's nickname for Metacomet, chief of the Wampanoags) is hunted down and killed on August 12, 1676, in a swamp in Rhode Island, ending the war in southern New England and ending the independent power of Native Americans there. In New Hampshire and Maine, the Saco Indians continue to raid settlements for another year and a half.

1681 - Pennsylvania is founded as William Penn, a Quaker, receives a Royal charter with a large land grant from King Charles II.

1682 - French explorer La Salle explores the lower Mississippi Valley region and claims it for France, naming the area Louisiana for King Louis XIV.

1682 - A large wave of immigrants, including many Quakers, arrives in Pennsylvania from Germany and the British Isles.

1685 - The Duke of York ascends the British throne as King James II.

1685 - Protestants in France lose their guarantee of religious freedom as King Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes, spurring many to leave for America.

1686 - King James II begins consolidating the colonies of New England into a single Dominion depriving colonists of their local political rights and independence. Legislatures are dissolved and the King's representatives assume all of the judicial and legislative power.

1687 - In March, New England Royal Governor, Sir Edmund Andros, orders Boston's Old South Meeting House to be converted into an Anglican Church. In August, the Massachusetts towns of Ipswich and Topsfield resist assessments imposed by Gov. Andros in protest of taxation without representation.

1688 - In March, Gov. Andros imposes a limit of one annual town meeting for New England towns. The Governor then orders all militias to be placed under his control.

1688 - Quakers in Pennsylvania issue a formal protest against slavery in America.

1688 - In December, King James II of England flees to France after being deposed by influential English leaders.

1689 - In February, William and Mary of Orange become King and Queen of England. In April, New England Governor Andros is jailed by rebellious colonists in Boston. In July, the English government orders Andros to be returned to England to stand trial.

1690 - The beginning of King William's War as hostilities in Europe between the French and English spill over to the colonies. In February, Schenectady, New York is burned by the French with the aid of their Native American allies.

1691 - In New York, the newly appointed Governor of New England, Henry Sloughter, arrives from England and institutes royally sanctioned representative government. In October, Massachusetts gets a new royal charter which includes government by a royal governor and a governor's council.

1692 - In May, hysteria grips the village of Salem, Massachusetts, as witchcraft suspects are arrested and imprisoned. A special court is then set up by the governor of Massachusetts. Between June and September, 150 persons are accused, with 20 persons, including 14 women, being executed. By October, the hysteria subsides, remaining prisoners are released and the special court is dissolved.

1693 - The College of William and Mary is founded in Williamsburg, Virginia.

1696 - The Royal African Trade Company loses its slave trade monopoly, spurring colonists in New England to engage in slave trading for profit. In April, the Navigation Act of 1696 is passed by the English Parliament requiring colonial trade to be done exclusively via English built ships. The Act also expands the powers of colonial custom commissioners, including rights of forcible entry, and requires the posting of bonds on certain goods.

1697 - The Massachusetts general court expresses official repentance regarding the actions of its judges during the witch hysteria of 1692. Jurors sign a statement of regret and compensation is offered to families of those wrongly accused. In September, King William's War ends as the French and English sign the Treaty of Ryswick.

1699 - The English Parliament passes the Wool Act , protecting its own wool industry by limiting wool production in Ireland and forbidding the export of wool from the American colonies.

1700 - The Anglo population in the English colonies in America reaches 250,000.

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The Pennsylvania Germans

The first group of Germans to settle in Pennsylvania arrived in Philadelphia in 1683 from Krefeld, Germany, and included Mennonites and possibly some Dutch Quakers. During the early years of German emigration to Pennsylvania, most of the emigrants were members of small sects that shared Quaker principles--Mennonites, Dunkers, Schwenkfelders, Moravians, and some German Baptist groups--and were fleeing religious persecution. Penn and his agents encouraged German and European emigration to Pennsylvania by circulating promotional literature touting the economic advantages of Pennsylvania as well as the religious liberty available there. The appearance in Pennsylvania of so many different religious groups made the province resemble "an asylum for banished sects." Beginning in the 1720s significantly larger numbers of German Lutherans and German Reformed arrived in Pennsylvania. Many were motivated by economic considerations.

Baptismal Certificate

This certificate features characteristic Pennsylvania German motifs.

Baptismal Certificate. Pennsylvania German fraktur woodcut with watercolor, 1807. Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress (31)

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The Narrow Gate

This Pennsylvania German illustration depicts a familiar 19th century evangelical motif of the narrow gate to Heaven and the broad and seductive road to Hell, where the devil and his minions await the self-satisfied sinner.

Das neue Jerusalem. Pennsylvania German fraktur woodcut with watercolor. Early nineteenth century. Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress (32)

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Many of the German sects that emigrated to Pennsylvania brought with them "primitive" Christian practices such as footwashing, seen here being practiced by the women of the Moravian Brethren.

Pedilavium das Füsswaschen der Schwestern. Engraving from David Cranz, Kurze, Zuverlässige Nachricht, von der, unter den Namen der Böhmisch-Mährischen Brüder Bekannt, Kirche Unitas fratrum, Halle: 1757. The Library Company of Philadelphia (33)

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Explore the OLL Collection: Images of Liberty and Power Representative Women: An Image of Several Suffragists (1870)

Created circa 1870 by the artist L. Schamer, “Representative Women” is a combinative portrait of seven influential suffragists who were popular on the lyceum lecture circuit from about 1860-1880. The popularity of this style of combined portraiture arises, in part, from its ability to convey the distinct personalities of each of the subjects while creating a whole that is greater than its parts.

‘I really do not see the signal’

In fact, a retreat would not only have wasted the initiative, but Nelson’s ships would have been forced to retreat across the line of fire from a still-active section of the Danish defences. Nelson turned to his flag-captain and said, ‘Foley, you know that I have lost an eye, and have a right to be blind sometimes’. Then he did raise his telescope to his blind eye and said, “I really do not see the signal.”

Nelson went on to win the battle and to negotiate an armistice, followed by a peace agreement. The phrase ‘to turn a blind eye’ had entered the English language. Admiral Parker was deemed by the Admiralty to have shown a lack of vigour in the overall campaign and was recalled Vice-Admiral Nelson took over his command.

Horatio Nelson’s leadership features in History Lessons, ‘Leading from the Front’

About the Author

Jonathan Gifford I write and blog about the human aspects of business and leadership, with an interest in the lessons that we can learn from history, including recent history. Please do leave a comment if anything occurs. You can sign up for my occasional newsletter, highlighting some recent blogs. I live in Oxfordshire, England.

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