Peter Struve

Peter Struve

Peter Struve was born in Perm, Russia, in 1870. While studying at the University of St. Petersburg he was converted to Marxism. Over the next few years Struve wrote a series of articles on economics for radical journals published abroad.

In 1897 moved to Switzerland where he joined George Plekhanov, Pavel Axelrod, Vera Zasulich and Lev Deich and the rest of the Liberation of Labour Group living in exile. Struve helped the group to publish the newspaper, Rabochee Delo (Worker's Cause). Struve also became editor of the Marxist periodical, Novoe Slovo (New Word).

Struve was a foundation member of the Social Democratic Labour Party (SDLP) and in 1898 wrote the party's manifesto. He also wrote Critical Notes on the Economic Development of Russia and edited Nachalo (Beginning)

In 1901 Struve was arrested during a visit to Russia. After a brief spell in prison Struve was released and sent into exile. He settled in Stuttgart, Germany, where he edited Osvobozhdenie (Liberation).

Struve returned to Russia during the 1905 Revolution. Over the years his views had become more conservative and he joined the Constitutional Democratic Party (Cadets). A member of the party's Central Committee, Struve was elected to the Second Duma in 1907.

Following the abdication of Nicholas II Struve served as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Provisional Government. An opponent of the October Revolution, Struve moved to France where he supported the White Army during the Civil War.

Peter Struve died in Paris in 1944.

One day in the fall of 1902, someone brought into the university the second issue of the weekly publication Osvobozhdeniye (Liberation), which had first been published in Stuttgart the year before and was edited by the young Marxist, Peter Struve. We were amazed and excited, because until that moment we had been completely unaware of the secret work that had been going on since the mid-1890s to organize the movement of which this journal was the official organ, a movement which combined zemstvo liberalism with the ideas of the intellectual, liberal, radical, and socialist circles.

If Struve ceased being a comrade (as a result of Lenin's criticisms), so much the worse for him. This is a loss for all comrades, because Struve is a very gifted and educated man. All the same, friendship is friendship and duty is duty, and nothing can prevent the conflict.

When Peter Struve, who had written the manifesto for the First Congress of the Social Democratic Party, deserted the Marxist ranks for the Liberal Camp, Lenin wrote an article for Iskra calling him a renegade and traitor. Takhtarev, who was then Lenin's close friend, asked him how he could permit himself to use such vitriolic language, since any worker who read the article might feel it was his duty to kill Struve as a "traitor". "He deserves to die", was Lenin's calm reply.

In the Footsteps of Peter Struve

Leafing through the books of one of the most important figures of Russian liberalism: With the help of ifa's funding programme CCP Synergy, a team of researchers from the University of Konstanz was able to explore the private library of Russian politician, economist and philosopher Peter Struve at the Polytechnic University in St. Petersburg. Maria Zhukova and Innokentij Urupin on the context of their research stay and their most exciting discovery on site.

Maria Zhukova in the private library of Peter Struve Photo and ©: Private

According to Wladimir Lenin's telegram dated January 13, 1919 and addressed to Aleksey Kudriavtsev, Head of the Library Department of the People's Commissariat for Education, the private library of Peter Struve (1870-1944) should be 'saved from plundering' and passed on to the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. From then until now the so-called 'Struve Collection', consisting of more than 9,000 works from the 17th until the early 20th century in Latin, Greek, German, English, French, Polish and Russian was placed in a storage room of the Polytechnic University, invisible to the eyes of researchers, only partly catalogued, and never examined systematically.

Peter Struve

Peter Struve (1870-1944) – Economist and political thinker, Struve was largely responsible for introducing so-called “Legal” Marxism and may be considered the actual founder of the Russian Social Democratic Party (Marxists) from which both the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks originated.

Like Berdyaev and Bulgakov, Struve came to find Marxism insufficient and helped found the Constitutional Democratic Party (Kadets).

After the Russian Revolutions of 1917, Struve became involved in the Red Army activities opposing the Red Bolsheviks and left the country, thus he was not swept up in the expulsions of 1922.

He remained part of the Bratstvo until it dissolved, but had little involvement in the YMCA initiatives, outreach with other European intellectuals, and minimal interaction with his former colleagues.

His grandson is now editor-in-chief of the YMCA Press.

Pipes, Richard. Struve: Liberal on the Left, 1870 – 1905. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970 and Struve: Liberal on the Right, 1905-1944.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.

Struve, Liberal on the Left, 1870-1905 , Том 1

After 1905--the years covered in this self-contained volume--Struve became the principal critic of the Russian intelligentsia and the main political ideologist of the anti-Bolshevik opposition during the Civil War and in emigration. His life was a part of the life of Russia as he struggled to craft a liberal democracy and wound up defeated and faced with an emerging totalitarian state.

In writing about Struve, Richard Pipes turns biography into history. He lays bare the split soul of the Russian intellectuals--their irresponsibility, unwillingness to compromise, intolerance. Struve, the liberal turned conservative, preached to his countrymen physical and spiritual freedom based on law. He was a Westerner in his championing of social reform, legality, private property, and a vigorous state and foreign policy. This long and rich tradition of liberal-conservatism is recounted against the background of a "monstrous growth of political claims on the individual that caused intellectual and moral independence increasingly to be punished with ostracism, confinement, exile, and death."

Peter Struve

В статье рассматриваются взгляды Петра Бернгардовича Струве на проблему сохранения и развития культуры русской молодежью в условиях эмиграции.

Кому передать историческую нить… (П.Б. Струве об образовании
и воспитании эмигрантской молодежи) // Высшее образования в России. 2008. № 11. С. 147-151.

В научном периодическом издании Екатеринбургской духовной семинарии публикуются материалы и исследования по различным вопросам богословия, церковной истории и смежных дисциплин, извлечения из протоколов заседаний ученого совета ЕДC, рецензии и отзывы на дипломные работы студентов семинарии, рецензии и библиографические заметки на новые актуальные для богословской науки исследования. Издание адресуется преподавателям и студентам духовных учебных заведений, историкам, богословам, философам, а также всем интересующимся.

The academic journal issued by Ekaterinburg Theological Seminary publishes materials and research articles on theology, church history and related disciplines, extracts from the protocols of the seminary academic council meetings, reviews and comments on the diploma papers of the seminary students, reviews and bibliographical notes on new research in the area of theological studies. The journal is addressed to teachers and students of religious schools, historians, theologians, philosophers and all those interested in the above mentioned topics.

Recommend Documents

Stud East Eur Thought (2017) 69:305–328

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution Timofey Dmitriev1

Published online: 20 November 2017  Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Abstract The author conducts a comparative analysis of the Russian Revolution developed by two prominent social-political thinkers of Germany and Russia in the early twentieth century—Max Weber and Peter Struve. The article focuses on their respective interpretations of the causes, course, and consequences of the Revolution as determined by their political ideals, i.e. a specific combination of nationalism and liberalism. The author pays special attention to Weber’s and Struve’s perception of the Russian Revolution, which, albeit for different reasons, was rejected by both thinkers. Keywords Max Weber  Peter Struve  Russian Revolution  Revolution as a religious and cultural problem  Political freedoms  Liberalism  Nationalism

In November 2017, Russia will celebrate the centennial anniversary of the Revolution that shook the established world order to its very foundations and set the key vectors for the political agenda for the rest of the twentieth century. However, there are still heated debates on the essence of this event and its political, social, and cultural consequences for both Russia and the world. Certainly, following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the discussions became calmer and more academic in their tone though without losing interest in the Revolution, as shown by the impressive number of essays and scientific works on the Revolution and its leading actors (Fitzpatrick 2017: 13–15). In such a situation, the opinions and assessments of ‘committed observers’1 are of special importance. This term denotes 1

This useful term was introduced by the prominent French sociologist and political thinker Aron (1981).

Faculty of Humanities, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Building 1, 21/4 Staraya Basmannaya Ulitsa, Moscow, Russian Federation 105064

outstanding political and social thinkers who either were direct witnesses to the Revolution or were able to observe it from exile and who tried to identify the logic and meaning of the events and their significance for the fate of the world. The article considers the interpretations and assessments of the Russian Revolution by two prominent social and political thinkers of Germany and Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century—Max Weber and Peter Struve. Though these two great minds of their time did not know each other personally, they had much in common.2 Both were social theorists and researchers of the first magnitude in their countries both tried to make a political career and failed both dreamed of political reforms aimed at democratization of suffrage and at establishing liberal-democratic forms of government in, respectively, Germany and Russia. Moreover, they had strikingly similar political views that surprisingly combined ideals of political and civic freedoms with a consistent nationalism prioritizing the political importance of the nation and nation-state interests. For both thinkers, nationalism and liberalism were ideological and spiritual constants that determined the development of their political views. Both considered political freedoms a guarantee of national self-preservation and prosperity. Such a symbiosis of ideas seems rather strange to an observer today but was quite typical for the European political life of the early twentieth century. Political journalism and political thought of the day defined it as ‘national liberalism’. Thus, the article considers how two prominent national liberals from Germany and Russia respectively, of the early twentieth century, viewed the Russian Revolution of 1917 and its social and cultural consequences. Due to limitations of space, I will not reconstruct in detail these two thinkers’ logic of reasoning, but will focus on their most important ideas and assessments of the Revolution of 1917 and Bolshevism.

Max Weber on the Russian Revolution of 1917 The articles and speeches of 1917–1919 are not the first examples of Weber’s interest in the prospects of the Russian Revolution (See Weber 1988a). Already in 1906, after having carefully studied the Russian press and even learning Russian for the purpose, Weber published two fundamental articles on the first Russian Revolution—‘‘Bourgeois democracy in Russia’’ (‘‘Zur Lage der bu¨rgerlichen Demokratie in Russland’’) and ‘‘Russia’s transition to pseudo-constitutionalism’’ ¨ bergang zum Scheinkonstitutionalismus’’).3 In these articles, he (‘‘Russlands U conducted a thorough analysis of the possible transformation of the tsarist autocracy into a constitutional government and of the liberals’ chances to become a part of the government system. Weber’s conclusions were disappointing: he believed that 2

It should be noted that Weber was well aware of the political views of Peter Struve as one of the leading ideologists of the liberal Russian intelligentsia that in 1905 united around the Constitutional Democratic Party with the official title ‘‘Party of Popular Freedom’’ (commonly known as Kadets). Weber repeatedly mentioned Struve in his works on the Russian Revolutions of 1905 and 1917 in particular, he examined the project of the agrarian reform prepared by P. Struve during the first Russian Revolution (Weber 1995a: 46, 65, 75, 76, 92, 100, 200, 243).

These articles were published in the tenth volume of Max Weber’s Gesamtausgabe (1989, Bd. 10).

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution

Russia had no serious social forces whose material interests would spur them to fight for political freedoms and a liberal-parliamentary form of government. Weber was not optimistic about the future of Russia as a democratic country. However, despite the fact that he estimated Russia’s chances of establishing a liberaldemocratic form of government as rather low, he sympathized with the Russian liberals’ fight for a better future of the country. After the failure of the first Revolution, Weber rarely addressed Russian issues, except in 1909 and 1912 in light of the aggravation of relations between Austria-Hungary and Russia due to their rivalry in the Balkans (Mommsen 1997: 9–10). During the First World War, Weber considered the situation in Russia only in passing however in 1917 the victory of the February Revolution incited him to return to the careful analysis of events in Russia. Unlike the publications of 1906 focusing on internal-political and social processes in Russia, Weber’s articles of 1917 and 1918 considered primarily the foreign policy agenda. According to Wolfgang Mommsen, he tried to convince the German public (notably the German Left) that the deposition of the tsar and the establishment of the Provisional Government would not bring about a major shift in Russian foreign policy, at least for the time being. In his view, the hope that the new government might be willing to enter into negotiations for a separate peace with the Central Powers was ill founded. Weber wanted to make clear that the German government had already done its best to arrive at a separate peace with the new Russian authorities, but their diplomatic initiatives had been to no avail (Mommsen 1997: 11). Perhaps that was the reason why Weber’s articles of 1917–1918 differed significantly in their tone from his previous works on Russia, which was mainly determined by the fact that Russia was at war with Germany and its allies in order to support the Entente powers.4 However, he conducted a thorough analysis of the events in Russia, paradoxically combining sharp and deep insights with estimates and forecasts that did not stand the test of time. Weber’s articles on Russia in 1917 provide a thoughtful researcher not only with an overview of the foreign policy agenda in the final years of the ‘great war’, but also with impressive data on the new phase of the revolutionary process and on the essence of Russian Bolshevism. At the very beginning, Weber self-critically admitted that the revolutionary events in Russia in February–March 1917 were a bolt from the blue (and not only for him). For the overwhelming majority of interested observers in both Russia and abroad, including V.I. Lenin, at that time in exile in Switzerland, the February Revolution of 1917 was a bolt from the blue. ‘‘Even those who are far better informed on the situation than I am had serious 4

The publishers of the English translation of Weber’s works on Russia, G. Wells and P. Baer, explained such a dramatic change in the tone of his articles in 1917 compared to his publications on the first Russian Revolution by the fact that ‘‘in 1917 it is the interests and security of the German nation-state that are foremost in his mind’’ (Wells and Baehr 1995: 2). Richard Pipes came to similar conclusions in his article ‘‘Max Weber and Russia’’ (Pipes 1955: 387–388) as did Wolfgang Mommsen in his analytical investigation ‘‘Max Weber und die deutsche Politik’’ (Mommsen 1959: 261, 274).

doubts as to whether the tsar would be overthrown during the war, or even after the war’’ (Weber 1995e [1917]: 241). Neither the objective trends of the development of Russian society following the first Revolution nor the alignment of social and class forces in Russia during the First World War, provided grounds for such forecasts and assumptions. After the failure of the first Revolution, Russian society underwent major social changes that significantly transformed it. In the article ‘‘Russia’s transition to pseudo-democracy’’ (1917), Weber mentioned only the most important of these changes. According to Weber, the key social transformation was the agrarian reform carried out by the government of Peter Stolypin (1906–1911) it allowed the authorities to split the united peasant front struggling for the radical redistribution of land. Stolypin’s agrarian reform had made the clever tactical move of splitting one of the core units of the socialist revolutionaries, the peasants of the region of Old Russia, into two differently sized but inevitably profoundly hostile parts: on the one hand, the new private owners who had emerged from village communism, that is, the economically strongest elements of the peasantry, whose new possessions tied them closely to the regime in power on the other hand, the proletarianized masses of the peasantry, who had remained within village communism, and who regarded the granting of the private ownership as a blatant injustice, favoring the other group (Weber 1995d [1917]: 241–242). Considering the other leading social groups of Russian society on the eve of 1917, Weber mentioned that the working class was growing due to the ‘‘proletarization of broad lower strata of the peasants, and as a result of the new system of private ownership, the landless industrial proletariat, which was not tied to the village by the claims to land, had greatly increased’’ however, the working class ‘‘was limited in numbers’’ (Weber 1995d [1917]: 242) and too small to play an independent social role in the predominantly peasant country. In Russia there was an unstable equilibrium that would not allow any significant social forces (the bourgeois circles or the proletarian masses) to overthrow the tsarist regime without an alliance between these two leading social forces, which Weber considered extremely unlikely under the given circumstances. In the articles on the first Russian Revolution, Weber also considered the most important condition for the successful transition of Russia to the liberal-democratic form of government—the political unity of the opponents of the tsarist autocracy, which crucially depended on the relations between two major social forces of urban Russia, i.e. the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. However, the main opposition forces differed significantly in both social composition and ideology. The bourgeoisie opposed the tsarist autocracy from liberal positions, while the working class was increasingly influenced by the socialist propaganda from the second half of the 1890s. Moreover, the archaic ideas of ‘agrarian communism’, or ‘village communism’, were widespread among the workers maintaining close ties to the village. As Weber noted in the article ‘‘Russia’s transition to pseudo-democracy’’ in 1917, referring to the first Russian Revolution,

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution

revolutions today, if they are to have more than a short-term success, can be carried out neither by the middle classes and bourgeois intelligentsia alone, nor by the proletarian masses and the proletarian intelligentsia alone either. Every general strike and putsch failed from the moment when the bourgeoisie and specifically that part of the bourgeoisie which is most important in Russia, namely the landowning zemstvo circles, had refused any further participation. (Weber 1995d [1917]: 242). Weber considered the lack of prerequisites for an alliance of the bourgeoisie and bourgeois intelligentsia, on the one hand, and the urban proletariat led by the proletarian intelligentsia, on the other hand, the most important reason that practically brought to naught the chances to overthrow the tsarist autocracy. Without a strong alliance with bourgeois circles, any attempts by the proletariat to overthrow tsarism were doomed to failure, for only the bourgeoisie had financial resources ‘‘necessary for the organization of the permanent administration’’ (Weber 1995d [1917]: 243). Weber stressed that … even when the rebellious masses have leaders who are as able and at least to some extent unselfish, as they undoubtedly are in Russia, there is one weapon they lack which will always be vital: credit-worthiness. This weapon is, however, possessed by the bourgeoisie. And on the basis of this creditworthiness the bourgeoisie can obtain the funds which today are necessary for the organization of permanent administration, whether or not it calls itself ‘revolutionary’. (Weber 1995d [1917]: 242–243). Therefore, there was a question ‘‘how the bourgeois circles would react to another revolution’’ (Ibid 243). A decade after the first Russian Revolution, the attitudes of the bourgeois business circles and intelligentsia changed significantly. Weber believed that on the eve of 1917 bourgeois circles did not strive for revolution or overthrow of the tsarist autocracy. According to Weber, not only were the ‘large industrialists’ opponents of a revolutionary coup5 following the Revolution of 1905–1907 ‘‘the majority of the bourgeois intelligentsia and the zemstvo circles’’ (Ibid., 243) were disappointed in revolutionary ideals and considered the possibility of external expansion. They were satisfied with the rights and freedoms granted by the tsar’s manifesto (October 17, 1905), and counted on foreign expansion into the Balkans, the Middle East, the Bosporus and Dardanelles. Their self-esteem, broken by the disappointment of their hopes of acquiring domestic powers, took refuge all the more fervently in the romantic dream of exercising power abroad. …Constantinople and the so-called liberation of Slavs (meaning in reality their domination by the nationalist Greater Russian bureaucracy) now replaced the enthusiasm for the ‘human rights’ and the ‘constituent assembly’. This imperialist legend, especially the Greater Russian claim to dominance within Russia itself, remained alive even in the bourgeois 5

‘‘It was, of course, clear, that the few giant enterprises in heavy industry in Russia would adopt an absolutely reactionary stance’’ (Weber 1995d [1917]: 243).

intelligentsia, and even during the heyday of the whole Liberation Movement. (Ibid., 243). Thus, in terms of the objective alignment of social and class forces in Russia at the beginning of 1917 ‘‘the revolution appeared extremely improbable’’ (Ibid., 244). Then why did the revolution break out and lead to the overthrow of the monarchy? Weber blames the political incapacity of the last Russian monarch Nicholas II and his closest circle. ‘‘His [Nicholas II] overriding and fundamental error lay in his fatal insistence on wanting to rule on his own’’ (Ibid.). Russian public opinion blamed the tsar for the defeat suffered by the army at the front during the ‘great’ war, especially after he appointed himself supreme commander in 1915, and for the refusal to share responsibility with bourgeois circles. On the eve of the revolution, ‘‘the path was open to agreement with the thoroughly nationalistic, bourgeois, monarchical majority of the Duma elected by a blatantly class-based franchise. However, the tsar was evidently prevented from taking this path and thus embracing parliamentarism by his fatal vanity’’ (Ibid.). If Nicholas II had confidently set out to establish a constitutional monarchy and a ‘government of public trust’, he would have had a chance to strengthen the relations with the bourgeois circles. However, both the tsar and his closest circle lacked such willingness. A political compromise with the bourgeois circles would have given Nicholas II a chance to keep the loyalty of army commanders and to prevent an alliance of bourgeois and radical socialist intelligentsia against the autocracy. The tsar rejected the idea of cooperation with opposition business and zemstvo circles, i.e. he made a major political miscalculation that ultimately cost him the throne. ‘‘Without the opposition of the bourgeois intelligentsia to the old regime, any mass revolt, no matter how successful, would have quickly run into the sand… But not only all trained workers’ leaders but also the leading strata of the bourgeois intelligentsia joined in, as a result of the behavior of the tsar’’ (Weber 1995d [1917]: 247). In the second year of the war, under the liberal-bourgeois opposition circles consolidation and the society’s disappointment in the military efforts of the tsarist regime, there was an objective need to exclude the politically incompetent tsar from the game in the interests of the state. ‘‘The longer the war continued, the more the need to remove the monarch was born in among the Russian imperialists themselves’’ (Weber 1995d [1917]: 245). In February 1917, ‘‘there was no ‘revolution’ but merely ‘the removal’ of an incompetent monarch. As least half of the real power was in hands of purely monarchist circles, who were only going along with the present ‘republican’ sham because, to their regret, the monarch did not stay within the necessary restraint to his power’’ (Weber 1995d [1917]: 252). The February Revolution led to the dual power of the bourgeois Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies, in which, during the spring and summer of 1917 moderate socialists—Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks—dominated. Weber defined (though not quite correctly) the events of February–March 1917 as a ‘palace coup’ that removed an ‘incompetent monarch’ from the political scene ‘in the interests of the state’. He argued that despite the dual power of the first Provisional Government

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution

and the Petrograd Soviet the coup did not change and could not have fundamentally changed the nature of power in Russia, especially the attitude of the new ruling circles to war. The bourgeois circles, officers, and a considerable part of bourgeois intelligentsia advocated the continuation of the war on the side of the Entente powers, and the establishment of order in the country, i.e. they sought a ‘strong personality’ or a military dictatorship capable of ensuring the social order. The strong power could guarantee not only the continuation of the war but also the inviolability of their property at a time of acute crisis. Therefore, the privileged circles (in terms of property and education) were not supporters of democracy. It was very unlikely that an open or disguised military dictatorship could be permanently kept at bay, if the war continued’’ (Weber 1995d [1917]: 248) for ‘‘the majority of professional officers, and certainly the bourgeois strata the class-based Duma and the Provisional Government, feared genuine democracy. Above all the money-providers, both domestic and in the allied countries, feared it. This is partly because they wished the war to continue, but partly also because they feared for the security of the money they have advanced. Their influence was the most significant. (Ibid., 248). The proletarian strata of the city and of the ‘intelligentsia’ were split into two unequal groups—the moderates led by the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries, and the so-called ‘maximalists’ headed by the Bolsheviks (the second group was in the minority). Weber did not believe in the success of the moderate socialist majority led by the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries (he called them ‘democrats’) that managed to control the majority of the proletariat and the city Soviets from February to the end of the summer of 1917. By obstructing the administration the socialist workers’ leaders may be able to extract political concessions from a bourgeois government—but they cannot do this from a ‘constituent assembly’ of peasants. Neither can they organize any steady administration of the country as long as the war continues. Here the decisive point is the lack of credit-worthiness, which remains a crucial factor as long as the war continues. (Ibid., 251–252). That is why Weber defined the events in Russia in February–March 1917 as a ‘transition to pseudo-democracy’ referring primarily to the propertied classes’ unwillingness to solve the fundamental social questions in the interests of the overwhelming majority of the Russian people, represented at that time by peasant masses demanding land and peace. Though the February Revolution used slogans of peace and democracy, it did not bring and could not have brought either peace or democracy, for the liberal-bourgeois circles that came to power in February 1917 with the support of moderate socialists (Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries) were not interested in the immediate end of the war by a separate peace with Germany and its allies or by establishing a democratic form of government in the foreseeable future. Weber believed that in foreign policy the liberal-bourgeois circles adhered to the slogan of continuing the war to victory, while in domestic policy, due to both material interests and sympathies, they sought a military

dictatorship capable of keeping soldiers in the trenches, the workers at their machine-tools, and, most importantly, rebuffing peasants who were smashing landowners’ estates and seizing the private land. Thus, in the articles of 1917, Weber came to the conclusion that, in the spring– summer of 1917, neither of the two power groups (the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet) wanted to establish a democratic government, solve the agrarian question, and end the war. The socially reactionary elements of the Duma and of the Provisional Government, amongst which the large landowners figure prominently, must first secure their own position within the country. To do this they need, first, to hold down the peasants who are demanding free distribution of private large landholdings, and secondly, they need money. The democratic peasants can be held down by keeping them in the trenches under the discipline of the general. Money can be obtained if Russia’s own banks and big industrialists, or the Entente powers, provide it. Neither their own, nor foreign financial powers will provide money except on condition that radical and revolutionary peasants are suppressed, and the war continues. (Weber 1995d [1917]: 264–265). Under the dual political power, the position of the ‘silent’ peasant majority became decisive for the fate of the Revolution. The moods of the peasantry were determined, on the one hand, by their reluctance to remain at the front and, on the other hand, by their demand for the radical redistribution of land, in which the peasant masses in soldiers’ greatcoats could take part only after the cessation of hostilities and mass demobilization. Objectively, it is the peasants in particular who have a real interest in peace, and they represent the overwhelming majority of the Russian people. In terms of their own ideals, their real interests cannot be satisfied without (1) the expropriation in entirety of non-peasant land, and (2) cancellation of Russia’s foreign debts. (Weber 1995d [1917]: 248–249). The ‘natural peasant program’ in the spring–summer of 1917 consisted of ‘‘(1) expropriation of land, (2) cancellation of the state debts, and (3) peace’’ (Weber 1995d [1917]: 251). The fundamental interests of the peasant masses represented in the ‘natural peasant program’ did not have the slightest chance for the support of the propertied classes with quite opposite interests. The latter sought to preserve large and middlesized land property to defend the institution of private property under the threat of the radical redistribution of private land without any redemption to support domestic and foreign creditors by excluding the possibility of the moratorium on paying debts or of repudiation of debts and to continue the war to keep the peasants in the trenches under the control of the army military-technical apparatus. In other words, the propertied classes of the Russian society and its leaders considered the war a means to solve domestic political problems (Weber 1995d [1917]: 249–250). As long as the war continued, the peasants stayed at the front, in the trenches, and the propertied classes and bankers were not worried about their money and property

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution

and the moderate socialists (Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries) controlled (until August 1917) the majority in the city Soviets, thus, providing society with a respectable democratic facade of ‘Soviets’ democracy’. In fact, this was the situation until October 1917, when, following the successful coup in Petrograd, the most radical faction of the Russian socialists (the Bolshevik Party headed by V. Lenin and L. Trotsky) came to power. Military dictatorship not of generals, but of corporals Max Weber’s assessment of Bolshevism Weber did not take the Bolshevik coup in October 1917 seriously, for he believed that the Bolsheviks would hold power only for a few months. ‘‘Their government is a government of an insignificant minority. It relies on the army being tired of the war. Under the given circumstances (and regardless of their beliefs’ sincerity) they are doomed to a military dictatorship, not of generals, but of corporals’’ (Weber 1988b [1918]: 292). Weber considered it ridiculous to believe that the Bolsheviks were supported by the ‘‘‘class conscious’ mass of the proletarian type for there was only the proletariat of soldiers’’ (Weber 1988b [1918]: 292). However, though Weber’s estimates of Bolsheviks prospects to hold on to power after the October 1917 coup were clearly mistaken, his analysis of the social nature of Bolshevism is still of undoubted interest. Based on the example of the October coup, Weber showed what social prerequisites could cause a seemingly political event, and what social consequences the latter would inevitably have. According to Weber, the nature of Bolshevism was determined not so much by the socialist ideas and ideals declared by the Bolshevik leaders, but by the material interests of their followers. He believed that the logic of the Bolsheviks’ domination would make the material interests of their followers prevail over and disgrace the ideal interests of their leaders. It is no exaggeration to say that Weber’s approach suffers from an underestimation of the ideals that helped the Bolsheviks’ come to power and of the ideocratic nature of the Soviet state they created. ‘‘Whatever may have been the goals the Saint-Petersburg intellectuals (die Petersburgen Literaten) pursued, their apparatus of power—the soldiers—was waiting and demanding only one thing: salaries and military booty, which explains everything’’ (Weber 1988b [1918]: 293). The reliance on the declassed and demoralized soldiers and the armed detachments of the Red Guard made the Bolsheviks highly dependent on their support. ‘‘A well-paid Red Guard will lack any interest in peace, for it will deprive the Guard of work and income’’ (Weber 1988b [1918]: 293). The Bolsheviks could strive for peace (in their slogans and ideals) as much as they wanted, but the masses of soldiers would not let them sign a peace treaty. The material interests of the Bolsheviks followers played a decisive role in the unfolding events. The Bolsheviks talked a lot about peace ‘without annexations and indemnities’, but the soldiers supporting them did not need such peace for they ‘‘invaded Ukraine, Finland, and other areas (including Russian), and collected indemnities under the pretext of ‘liberation’’’ (Weber 1988b [1918]: 293).

Weber conducted an analysis of the social base of Bolshevism and wrote a considerable amount about those who ‘‘lived not for the revolution, but at the expense of the revolution’, i.e. social parasites who derived personal benefits from revolutionary activities and, thus, were interested rather in the revolution lasting as long as possible than in achieving its declarative goals. That was the ‘‘essence of Bolshevism’’ (Weber 1988c [1918]: 452). As Weber stressed in his ‘‘Politics as a vocation and profession’’, in the modern world the fate of every politician, who wants to create the realm of absolute justice by violence, depends entirely on his ability to offer his retinue and followers such material and symbolic rewards that would satisfy them. Even being a purposeful genius, he would not be able to implement a political program without a government apparatus that would follow his orders if he promised and ensured the necessary (internal and external) rewards. ‘‘Internal premiums’’ allow ‘‘satisfying hatred and the craving for revenge’’, ‘‘resentment and the need for pseudo-ethical self-righteousness: the opponents must be slandered and accused of heresy’’ while ‘‘the external rewards are adventure, victory, booty, power, and spoils’’ (Weber 1946 [1919]: 125). ‘‘The leader and his success are completely dependent upon the functioning of his machine and hence not on his own motives. Therefore, he also depends upon whether or not the premiums can be permanently granted to the followers, that is, to the Red Guard, the informers, the agitators, whom he needs. What he actually attains under the conditions of his work lies therefore not in his hands, but is prescribed to him by the followers’ motives, which, if viewed ethically, are predominantly base. The followers can be harnessed only as long as an honest belief in his person and his cause inspires at least part of the followers…’’ (Weber 1946 [1919]: 125).6 In Weber’s articles and speeches of 1917–1919, one can find another noteworthy explanation of the Bolsheviks’ coming to power in October 1917. According to Weber, a unique constellation of three types of communist aspirations provided the Bolsheviks with mass social support in the fall of 1917: the agrarian communism of the peasantry that sought to preserve the land commune and to distribute private land by consumers the consumer communism of the declassed masses of soldiers and the Red Guard detachments that demanded from the Bolshevik leaders the booty and premiums (internal and external) as a reward for their loyalty and support and the utopian communism of the revolutionary intelligentsia that considered the Russian revolution a detonator of the world socialist revolution, primarily in the developed countries of Western and Central Europe.7 Without the constellation of these three factors under the acute social-political crisis in the autumn of 1917, the Bolsheviks would have hardly had a chance to seize power, not to mention a chance to hold it in the foreseeable future. Among three forms of communism identified by Weber in his study of Bolshevism, utopian communism is of a particular interest, for this is an ideological doctrine of the radical intelligentsia that made the struggle against the tsarist autocracy its profession. This allowed Weber to define the Russian revolutionary 6

The translation is slightly amended.

Stefan Breuer rightly points to this in his valuable analysis of Soviet communism from the perspective of the systematic and historical sociology of Max Weber (Breuer 1992: 269).

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution

intelligentsia as a ‘quasi-religious’ movement of intellectuals united by a ‘common faith’. Though many theoreticians of Russian social democracy at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries tried to resist populism, their followers often remained adherents of the idea of the special mission of Russia as supposedly capable of skipping the bourgeois stage of social development and of immediate transition to socialism, and sympathized with agrarian communism rooted in the social practices of the Russian rural commune. When considering Weber’s analysis of Bolshevism, one should remember that he distinguished two forms of socialism. The first one is modern socialism connected with rational industrial capitalism, factory labor discipline, and the mass labor movement putting the rational organization of production on a collectivist basis to the fore. The second form of socialism emphasizes the fundamental importance of the equal distribution of social wealth. Weber defines this second form of socialism in the modern world as ‘communism’. In Economy and Society, he identifies conceptual differences between socialism and communism: ‘‘The conflict between two rival forms of socialism has not died down since the publication of Marx’s Mise`re de la Philosophie. On the one hand, there is the type, which includes especially the Marxists, which is evolutionary and oriented to the problem of production on the other hand, the type which takes the problem of distribution as its starting point and advocates a rational planned economy. The latter is again today coming to be called ‘communism’’’ (Weber 1978 [1921]: 112). In his articles on the Revolution of 1905, Weber declared the doctrinal discrepancies between the two forms of modern socialism to be the cause of the split of Russian social democracy into the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks, though he noted that the struggle for power and for the souls of potential adepts between various groups of social democrats and their leaders played an equally important role. ‘‘The conflict within the Russian socialist movement, especially as exemplified in the passionate dispute between Plekhanov and Lenin, was, after all, also concerned with this issue. While the internal divisions of present-day socialism are very largely concerned with competition for leadership and for ‘benefits’, along with these issues goes the same set of problems’’ (Weber 1978 [1921]: 112). Even though ‘‘the causes of the split are evidently not ones of principle, but are in part personal, in part tactical in nature’’, ‘‘some of the reasons [for the split] lie in the intellectual peculiarity of Russian socialism’’ (Weber 1995b [1906]: 67). Considering the strategy and tactics of the Bolsheviks who already in the first Russian Revolution relied on armed uprising and the confiscation of all non-peasant lands in favor of the peasants, Weber argued that the revolutionary-‘putschist’ sentiments of the Russian social democracy were determined not only by the struggle of its leaders for power or euphoria at the initial stage of the first Revolution, but also by features of the Russian revolutionary tradition. Revolutionism and opposition to the ‘laws of development’ has been in blood of the specifically Russian kind of socialism from the time of its fathers, Herzen and Lavrov, who were influenced by some of Hegel’s ideas. Herzen rejected as ‘nonsense’ the idea that socialism could only arise via capitalism, and Lavrov, like the older representatives of the ‘narodnichestvo’, stressed the

‘creative’ nature of the human mind—the spirit ‘come to itself’. This pragmatic rationalism has never been completely supplanted by the naturalistic rationalism of any ‘developmental theory’. Of course, its most telling arguments are to be found in the actual existence of communism in the Russian village commune. (Weber 1995b [1906]: 67–68). Weber was a discerning observer of the revolutionary process in Russia and understood that revolutionism and social messianism were not distinctive features of the supporters of Bolshevism they were typical for the entire radical intelligentsia regardless of ideological differences and political views among them. It is no coincidence that in Economy and Society Weber defined Russian socialism as a great intellectual movement that ‘‘shared enough basic elements to approximate a religion’’ (Weber 1978 [1921]: 515–516). Though the Russian liberation movement was never ‘unified’ by ideological orientations and political aspirations, it had a ‘common faith’. This common faith of the radical intelligentsia was expressed in that … patrician, academic, and aristocratic intellectuals stood alongside plebeian ones. Plebeian intellectualism was represented by the proletaroid minor officialdom, which was highly sophisticated in its sociological thinking and broad cultural interests it was composed especially of the zemstvo officials (the so-called ‘third element’). Moreover, this kind of intellectualism was advanced by journalists, elementary school teachers, revolutionary apostles and peasant intelligentsia that arose in the Russian social conditions. (Weber 1978 [1921]: 516).8 In Economy and Society, Weber described the quasi-religious character of the Russian revolutionary intelligentsia ideology: ‘‘in the 1870s, this movement culminated in an appeal to the theory of natural rights, oriented primarily toward agricultural communism, the so-called ‘narodnichestvo’ (populism). In the 1890s, this movement clashed sharply with Marxist dogmatics, but in part also aligned with it. Moreover, attempts were made to relate it, usually in an obscure manner, first to Slavophile romantic, then mystical religiosity or, at least, religious emotionalism’’ (Weber 1978 [1921]: 516).9 Certainly, Weber’s position is similar to the assessments of the Russian intelligentsia in the articles of outstanding Russian thinkers of the Revolutions of 1905 and 1917 published in the collections ‘‘Vekhi’’ [Landmarks] (1909) and ‘‘Iz Glubiny’’ [From the Depths] (1918) with the active participation of Struve (1991a [1909]: 150–166, b [1918]: 459–478). However, Weber’s main objections to the socialist experiment in Russia were determined primarily by his systematic theory of bureaucracy.10 According to Weber, one of the principal features of the modern world is the concentration of all managerial functions in the hands of a professional bureaucracy. Though the historical development of rational bureaucracy was connected with rational 8

The translation is slightly amended.

The translation is slightly amended.

Most researchers of Weber’s works on this issue have emphasized this circumstance: Beetham 1985: 202–203 Mommsen 1959: 274–277 Parkin 2003: 118 Pipes 1955: 396–398.

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution

Western-style industrial capitalism (in a narrow sense) and the multifaceted modernization of the old European societies, the prevalence of rational bureaucratic management is a distinctive feature of modern societies as such, for, due to technological reasons, they separate workers from the means of production. Weber emphasized that ‘‘today increasing ‘socialization’ inevitably means increasing bureaucratization’’ (Weber 1994a [1918]: 147). All societies like that of Soviet Russia, in which the main branches of the economy are nationalized, and the state is directed by ‘‘Literaten’’ (as Weber contemptuously called the revolutionaryminded representatives of intelligentsia), strives to control all aspects of life, are doomed to dictatorship, but not to the dictatorship of proletariat the Bolshevik leaders dreamed of, but to ‘‘the dictatorship of the bureaucrat’’. The nationalization of enterprises and firms eliminates private sector bureaucracy and replaces it with the united state bureaucracy that is much harder to oppose by the workers defending their professional interests. ‘‘It is in publicly owned concerns and those of singlepurpose associations, however, that the official, not the worker rules completely and exclusively here it is more difficult for the worker to achieve anything by strike action than it is against private entrepreneurs. It is the dictatorship of the official, not that of the worker, which, for the present at any rate, is on the advance’’ (Weber 1994b [1918]: 292). Thus, Weber considered Lenin’s idea of the ‘commune-state’ an unviable illusion.

The Russian Revolution as a spiritual and historical-sociological problem Peter Struve’s conception Unlike Weber, who analyzed the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution from the foreign-policy and sociological perspectives, Struve’s perception was determined primarily by religious and moral considerations, which is evident in his article ‘‘Twelve by Alexander Blok’’: ‘‘the attitude to the Russian Revolution is a particular case of the general attitude to sin and abomination’’ (Struve 1921: 232–233). Such a religious-moral approach explains why in the articles and speeches of 1917 Struve rarely conducted a social-political or socialeconomic analysis of the dynamics of the revolutionary process in Russia. As Richard Pipes rightly noted in his classical monograph on Struve’s works of that time, ‘‘this was not so much a concrete political program as a political sermon, very much in the spirit of Dostoevsky. In fact, throughout the rest of the year, Struve paid scant attention to such issues as political institutions, agrarian policies, or the nationality question, which preoccupied his contemporaries. These, in his mind, were secondary matters compared to the fundamental issues of spirit and will’’ (Pipes 1980: 234). The years 1918–1921, with the fierce civil war being waged, were not the right time for a calm and comprehensive analysis of the results of the Russian Revolution. In these years, Struve was primarily an active politician and ideologist of the antiBolshevik ‘white’ movement. The right time to sum up the results of the Revolution came later, in emigration, when Struve combined political efforts to organize an

anti-Bolshevik united front with the analysis of spiritual and social-cultural outcome of the Russian Revolution. It should be noted that during the 1920s-1940s Struve repeatedly reconsidered the driving forces, the essence and consequences of the Revolution, the nature of the Bolshevik regime, and the prospects of its overthrow, clarified and explained his interpretations and assessments, changed them to accord with the new historical and social-economic context, though his general attitude to the Revolution remained unchanged (Struve 1999a: 289–318 319–330 331–349). During both the armed struggle against Bolshevism (1918–1920) and the forced emigration (1921–1944), Struve defined the victory of the Bolshevik revolution as a colossal civilizational and cultural regression on the way to liberal democracy and economic prosperity he believed it would take several decades to overcome the consequences of this regression after the fall of the Soviet regime. Struve considered the Russian Revolution ‘‘a deep cultural, social and political reaction’’, a ‘‘national disaster, an internal-political and foreign-policy collapse’’ (Struve 1952: 19, VII). ‘‘The Bolshevik coup and Bolshevik rule are the social and political reaction of the egalitarian lower classes against the centuries-old social and economic Europeanization of Russia’’ (Struve 1952: 9). He believed that the consequences of the Revolution made it an extraordinary event breaking the normal course of the historical process by the terrible economic decline and cultural impoverishment. ‘‘The characteristic feature of the Russian Revolution—as it has actually been carried out in Bolshevism—is not only and not so much the weakening of the state and of its power in its traditional form far more important than the fall of the state is the weakening both of the physical strength of the population, and of its spiritual culture under the Bolshevik regime’’ (Struve 1922: 29). Struve offered the definition of the Revolution as a colossal social-civilizational and cultural regression as the basis ‘‘for the sociological interpretation of reality, for the political will to master it, and, most importantly, for the spiritual perception of it’’ (Struve 1999d [1922]: 321). The last statement proves that Struve considered the Russian Revolution at several levels, and in his works there are at least two interpretations. On the one hand, he insisted that the Revolution was a moral-religious problem requiring a practical and volitional attitude in the form of spiritual denial and defeat. Struve stressed that ‘‘Russia could recover only by a radical spiritual overcoming of the revolution. All forms of its idealization must be evaluated from this point of view. The more spiritual and abstract the idealization is, the more dangerous it is. The Russian spirit must devote all its forces to the final spiritual overcoming of the lie inherent in the revolution and evidently manifested in its material and spiritual destructions’’ (Struve 1999d [1922]: 321). However, this is not the only line of reasoning in Struve’s political philosophy. He also considered the Revolution as a historical-sociological problem rooted in Russia’s past. ‘‘The historical problem of the political and social revolution which has taken place in Russia involves the elucidation of the following questions: (1) How did it come about that the revolution against property took place in Russia? (2) Why and how could this revolution succeed and to what has its work led?’’ (Struve 1922: 32).

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution

Struve’s historical-sociological interpretation of the Russian Revolution has several features. While historians and publicists of the Russian emigration supporting the ‘left’ and ‘progressivist’ positions as well as Bolshevik theorists tended to draw far-reaching parallels between the Russian and French revolutions, Struve, on the contrary, considered such parallels false, for most of the goals of the revolution in France had been successfully achieved by the ‘old order’ in Russia before the first Revolution of 1905–1907. Thus, the economic and administrativelegal unification, realized by the French Revolution, had been successfully carried out in Russia in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by the tsarist autocracy (Struve 1922: 34): communication lines were improved to link the most remote parts of the country the full-fledged domestic market was created the currency, the taxation system, the system of measures and weights, the system of universal formal education, especially primary and secondary, and legal guarantees for private property were unified and standardized. And vice versa: the problems that remained unresolved within the Russian Empire on the eve of the twentieth century (primarily the agrarian, labor and national questions), acquired solutions in the course of the Russian Revolution contrary to the very spirit of the French Revolution. By its aims, the latter was a bourgeois revolution aiming to eliminate the last obstacles to the development of civil (bourgeois) society on a sustainable institutional and legal basis. Therefore, the Code of Napoleon became the most important symbol of the victorious revolution.11 The revolution in Russia, on the contrary, led to the destruction of the incipient civil society and to the radical land redistribution in the spirit of agrarian communism (Weber stressed this point). This led to the destruction of the highly developed private entrepreneurial economy in agriculture with its large share of commodity products. The Bolsheviks’ strategic choice of ‘complete collectivization’ in agriculture in the late 1920s had been to a large extent predetermined by these developments. Workers were deprived of free professional and political representation. Entire social-professional categories—the aristocracy, service nobility, bureaucracy, officer corps, the large industrial and commercial-financial bourgeoisie, merchants, orthodox clergy, the intelligentsia of ‘free professions’, the prosperous peasantry, Cossacks, urban commercial entrepreneurs, etc.—suffered destruction. The Revolution brought about the destruction of all more or less significant prerequisites and conditions for the development of bourgeois civil society and constitutional forms. That is why the Soviet period became a ‘modernity without a civil society’. Though Struve denied the relevance of far-reaching parallels between the Russian and French revolutions, he laid a certain share of the historical blame for the revolution on the ‘old order’, i.e. the tsarist autocracy, its bureaucracy and the 11

Max Weber also noted the false parallels between the Russian and French Revolutions in his articles on first Russian revolution. ‘‘The Russian revolution has been compared to the French Revolution. Apart from numerous other differences it suffices to indicate the decisive object which, in contrast to that time, is no longer ‘sacred’ even to the ‘bourgeois’ representatives of the freedom movement [in Russia] and is missing from the catalogue of benefits which it is hoped liberation will bring, namely ‘property’. Today the tsar proclaims its ‘sanctity’—rather belatedly from the point of view of his own interests’’ (Weber 1995c [1906]: 232).

social forces supporting it. Considering the historical causes and prerequisites of the Russian Revolution, he repeatedly stressed that the unwillingness and refusal of the tsarist autocracy and bureaucracy to share political power and responsibility with civil society was one of the main reasons for the collapse of tsarism. Struve harshly criticized the tsarist autocracy for the political catastrophe of 1917 in the articles and speeches of 1917–1918. Thus, in November 1917, hot on the heels of the October Revolution he wrote: ‘‘If one wants to call the All-Russian pogrom of 1917 a Russian Revolution, I will be honest: the main crime of the old regime is precisely that it prepared this revolution and made it unavoidable. However, for the sake of justice I should add that the entire progressive Russian intelligentsia was a participant in this crime due to its indiscriminate and reckless struggle with the old order, in particular after the revolution of 1905’’ (Struve 1999b [1917]: 257). In his article in the collection From the Depths, Struve also did not fail to emphasize the unwillingness of the tsarist autocracy and absolutist bureaucracy to share political power and responsibility with the aristocratic and bourgeois circles as one of the main causes of the Revolution. Struve considered the Russian monarchy on the eve of its overthrow ….to be persistent in its reactionary distrust of the educated classes and jealous protection of its prerogatives it was systematically pushing these classes into opposition increasingly imbued with a renegade anti-state spirit. Thus, the revolution had two sources and was prepared by both the historical monarchy that deprived the cultural and educated elements of political participation in state building, and the intelligentsia with its shortsighted struggle against the state. (Struve 1991b [1918]: 466–467). Such an interpretation of the causes of the Revolution followed from Struve’s idea of history. He considered the history of Russia following the reforms of Peter the Great in terms of a conflict between state and society. Having taken the path of modernization and westernization at the turn of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Russian state sought to create broadly literate and educated classes and relied on the Europeanized elite, or new ‘educated classes’, first the nobility and then the commons (raznochintsy). However, the aim of the state to create and to rely on the classes educated in the European style was not accompanied by the willingness to share political responsibility for governing the country. The educated classes played an increasingly important role though remained politically powerless. The historical misfortune of Russia that determined the tragic catastrophe of 1917 is due…to the terrible delay of political reform in Russia. To ensure Russia’s proper cultural and national development, the reform should have been carried out already at the beginning of the 19th century. Then the delayed (personal) emancipation of the peasants would have quickly followed, and the development of political and social relations would have proceeded more normally. (Struve 1991b [1918]: 466). As Struve noted with regret, political rights were granted to the educated nobility and educated classes generally too late, in exchange for preserving serfdom that was

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution

abolished only in 1861 and at the expense of the ‘apostasy’ (otschepenstvo) of the educated classes from the state. The old aristocratic regime has leaned for centuries on the social authority and political subservience of that class which has created Russian culture and without whose creative work there would have been no [Russian] nation: the class of the landed gentry. By systematically refusing first that class, and then its offshoot, the intelligentsia, the right to participate authoritatively in the task of constructing and administering the state, the autocracy inculcated in the souls, in the intentions and habits of Russia’s educated, the psychology and traditions of political apostasy. This apostasy is precisely that destructive force which, after spilling over onto ordinary people and linking up with their material lusts and longings, brought down the great multifarious state. (Struve 1991b [1918]: 462). According to Struve, the split between the state and the educated society determined the logic of Russian history in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and thus Russia’s historical destiny. The participation of the educated classes in the political life of the country, in key decisions, together with the expansion of the masses’ civil and political rights, constituted the most important social-political problem at the beginning of the twentieth century. ‘‘Russia’s misfortune and the main cause of the catastrophic nature of the Russian Revolution lies in the fact that the people, the population, society (call it what you will) were not drawn into and involved with the requisite gradualness in active and responsible participation in political life and political authority’’ (Struve 1999c [1919]: 281). Struve and other liberal Russian ideologists of the early XX century believed that the social-political and economic transformation of the obsolete social order could be successful only under the cooperation of the government and ‘healthy’ (i.e. liberal-minded) forces of society. However, the tsarist autocracy and bureaucracy proved incapable of solving the tasks of modernization, which they took on in the era of ‘great reforms’. If the ruling elite had taken seriously the policy of expanding political and civil rights, first of the educated classes and then of the broad masses, the elite would have been in a much more favorable position at the beginning of the twentieth century, and in the years of the first Russian Revolution would not have been literally ‘thrust to the wall’ by society, urgently forcing the tsarist regime to make one concession after another and to implement the long overdue program of social-political and economic transformations. In politics, the time factor plays a crucial role the steps that can save the situation today will not ensure the desired result tomorrow and will just fuel public expectations pushing society to a tougher confrontation with the authorities. One of the key consequences of the civilizational split between the state and society in prerevolutionary Russia (Struve preferred to call it the ‘apostasy’ of the educated society from the state) was the emergence of a special group within the educated classes: the Russian revolutionary intelligentsia combined the messianic interpretation of the idea of serving the people with socialist ideas and ideals borrowed from the West. ‘‘The Russian revolutionary intelligentsia as a special cultural category is the product of the interaction of Western socialism with the

specific conditions of our cultural, economic and political development. Before the reception of socialism in Russia, there was no intelligentsia, only an ‘educated class’ and its variations’’ (Struve 1991a [1909]: 165). The main social-political factor determining the historical fate of the Russian revolutionary intelligentsia was its sharply negative attitude, not only to the tsarist autocracy, but also to the state. ‘‘In the Russian political development, the intelligentsia is a very special factor: the historical significance of the intelligentsia in Russia is determined by its attitude to the state in both its idea and its embodiment. From this point of view, the intelligentsia as a political category appeared in Russian political life only in the era of reforms and finally showed up in the revolution of 1905–1907’’ (Struve 1991a [1909]: 153). Unlike the ‘educated classes’ that ‘‘played and continue to play a prominent role in every state’’, ‘‘the Russian intelligentsia chose another ideological form—apostasy, alienation from the state and hostility to it’’ (Struve 1991a [1909]: 153). Struve’s historical reflections on the causes of the Revolution are intertwined with the elements of sociological analysis. Considering the social classes that became the driving forces of the Revolution of 1917, Struve named not only the revolutionary intelligentsia but also another social group—the peasantry, whose significance for the Russian history cannot be overestimated. These two forces played a crucial role in the irreversible collapse of the old social order and in the Revolution’s radical character. Included among the key challenges for the Russian transition to liberal democracy were the belated constitutional reform politically limiting the tsarist autocracy and the delay in the abolition of serfdom, that came about very late by the European standards—in 1861. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the tsarist autocracy was not ready to limit its powers constitutionally and compensated for the refusal to grant political rights to the nobility by preserving serfdom. ‘‘The Russian monarchy paid with serfdom for the refusal to carry out a political reform. And the belated personal peasant emancipation postponed the irreversible establishment of small landed property and land management’’ (Struve 1991b [1918]: 465). Such a policy had a regrettable outcome—double alienation of the educated classes from the state, and the peasant masses from the civilized bases of private property and legal consciousness. In 1918, Struve wrote: Today it might be obvious to us that the Russian monarchy collapsed in 1917 having depended too long on the absence of political rights of the nobility and civil disenfranchisement of the peasantry. The absence of political rights of the nobility and other cultured classes gave birth to the political apostasy of the intelligentsia. And this apostasy produced the spiritual poisons which, having penetrated the peasantry, that until 1861 had lived outside the law and without rights and developed neither an awareness of nor an instinct for property, impelled the peasant masses clad in gray uniforms to overthrow the state and economic culture. (Struve 1991b [1918]: 465–466). What does Struve mean by ‘spiritual poisons’? He emphasized that

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution

the attack [on the ‘old order’ in both forms—tsarist and bourgeois—in 1917] was led in the name of the idea of socialism and communism against existing property, and the idea of property altogether. Here the decisive factor was that in virtue of the late development of Russian ideologies under the influence of the West, in the Russian educated class, which socially was a peculiar variant of the bourgeoisie, the prevailing point of view was socialist, while among the masses of the people neither the habits nor the idea of property prevailed. (Struve 1922: 32). The Russian Revolution (as both Weber and Struve stressed already in 1905–1906) took place under the hegemony of two kinds of socialist and communist ideas: the radical intelligentsia adhered to the Western ideas of socialism, while the peasantry—to the levelling syndrome of agrarian communism. It was this infernal explosive mixture of socialist ideas borrowed from the West and egalitarian-communal ideas of the peasantry that proved to be deadly and eventually destructive. The combination of socialism among the educated classes and the absence of any sense of property among the masses of the peasantry created that spiritual atmosphere within which the Russian Revolution ran its course. The institution of property was defenseless on two sides: the intelligentsia had intellectually renounced it, and the masses of the people had not yet arrived at it. This is the historical explanation of that lack of any conscious resistance to the Russian Revolution’s onslaught upon property. As far as there did exist elements of settled peasant property in pre-Revolution Russia—the creation of which had been the aim of men like Stolypin and Krivoshin—these elements were also swept away by the Revolution. The Revolution equally did away with the property of the gentry and peasantry. (Struve 1922: 33). At the same time Struve stressed that Russian history was determined not only by the lack of developed feudal institutions and private peasant property. The Revolution had deeper cultural and civilizational roots, including the lack of the modernizing influence of the Reformation that deprived Russian society of the rational organization of everyday life and the rational, reasonable, practical, and projective perception of labor based on the idea of a methodical lifestyle. Thus, the ideals and norms of modern practical rationality could not penetrate the depths of everyday life patterns, which, among other things, led to the lack of a healthy sense of private property, to the lack of the developed juridical consciousness among the Russian peasantry, and to the peasant masses’ fascination with the ideas and moods of agrarian communism. The significance of the Reformation and of the Catholic reaction which is so closely connected with it consists in this—that, with the help of religion and the Church, the principles of a certain social morality and discipline deeply penetrated the soul of the people. The Reformation marks the secularization of Christian morality, its conversion into a discipline and practice of everyday life—or, if you prefer, its ‘embourgeoisement’’’. However, ‘‘in Russia there was no Reformation and there was no secularization of Christian morality, nor

was it ever converted into a method and discipline of everyday life, into a bourgeois morality. In Russia there was religion and a religious sense, but religion did not penetrate into everyday life as a principle of discipline. (Struve 1922: 35, 36).12 Needless to say, Struve’s and Weber’s ideas coincide: Weber, too, regarded the motivational prerequisites and foundations of methodical life to be among the determining factors of rational industrial, capitalist development. Such practical and ethical rationalism rooted in the religious ideas of protestant sects constituted the basis for the formal-rational (instrumental) perception of the world as well as the special concept of worldly (mundane) labor as a vocation for the believer. Thereby, Weber’s liberal interpretation of the motivational prerequisites of capitalism and liberal democracy was strikingly similar to the Struve’s liberal idea that the absence in Russia of the kind of personality formed by the methodical behavior and embodying bourgeois ideals of practical rationality, ascetic morality, and discipline that became a main reason for the failure of pre-revolutionary modernization and for the victory of the Bolshevik revolution. Such motivational prerequisites and the methodical life based on them were not widespread in Russia (with the exception of some religious sects like the Old Believers). Both in the spiritual as well as the social and political evolution of the Russian people there is a missing link, which for the evolution of the peoples of the West is no less material, indeed, perhaps even more material, than the system of feudalism and bondage and municipal institutions. Bourgeois morality and bourgeois discipline did not have the roots in Russia out of which they grew in West-European civilization, and from which also sprang socialism as a movement of civilization. (Struve 1922: 36).13 That is what the Russian revolutionary intelligentsia could not and did not want to understand, which made the role of the intelligentsia in the Revolution central for Struve’s studies. He believed that anti-state activities of the revolutionary intelligentsia and its political apostasy from the state were the main causes of the collapse of statehood and the death of historical Russia. The revolutionary intelligentsia was inspired by the socialist illusion and sought to spread it into the depths of the people’s life, paying little attention to the real needs of the people it had to serve in post-reform Russia. The outlook of the revolutionary intellectual was a combination of moral irresponsibility and political shortsightedness. ‘‘The irreligious apostasy from the state typical for the political outlook of the Russian intelligentsia explains both its moral flippancy and political inefficiency’’ (Struve 1991a [1909]: 163). In addition to these qualities, unsuitable for practical politics, the Russian revolutionary intelligentsia, unlike the educated classes of Western and Central Europe, completely lacked a serious national self-consciousness. It is this weakness of the national consciousness of the people and educated classed that Struve considered to be the key cause of the radical intellectual circles’ adherence to 12

The translation is slightly amended.

The translation is slightly amended.

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution

the socialist temptation and the main reason for the devastating events of 1917 that destroyed the centuries-old tradition of Russian statehood and culture. ‘‘Russia was ruined by the non-nationality of intelligentsia, the single and unique case in world history when the national idea was consigned to oblivion by the brains of the nation’’ (Struve 1999c [1919]: 272). Struve considered a healthy national selfconsciousness an essential prerequisite to overcoming the social crisis caused by the Revolution. However, the direct catalyst of the revolutionary explosion in 1917 was Russia’s participation in the First World War requiring tremendous efforts on the part of state and society alike, including calling up millions of peasants for military service. The fate of statehood critically depended on the ‘support’ of the ‘armed people’ (or the lack thereof). As Struve stressed, the peculiarity of the Russian Revolution consisted in this: that its agent was not simply the ‘people’, but the armed people. The war created the active force of the Revolution. It was only through the war that such enormous masses of people could actively engage in the Revolution. This circumstance defined the force and scope of the Revolution. To comprehend this side of the question, we must keep in mind that what we understand as the force and scope of such movements as revolutions depends, in the last resort, not only on the force of the attack, but on the relation of the attack to the resistance. (Struve 1922: 31–32). In 1917, the forces of order (first the tsarist autocracy and after February 1917 the bourgeoisie) turned out to be a relatively weak actor in the blind defense, while the revolutionary forces managed to go on the offensive supported by the armed soldiers and ideological hegemony of socialist ideas propagated by the revolutionary intelligentsia. The World War made the masses both at the front and in the village exceedingly receptive to socialist and anti-state propaganda. ‘‘The phenomenon of the Russian Revolution can be explained by the coincidence of the distorted ideological upbringing of the Russian intelligentsia through most of the 19th century and the impact of the great war on the masses: the war pushed the people into a situation that made them particularly susceptible to the demoralizing message of intellectual ideas’’ (Struve 1991b [1918]: 461). The struggle between the state and revolutionary intelligentsia in 1917 ended in the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy and the collapse of the state. However, the triumph of pre-revolutionary intelligentsia was short-lived. In the new Soviet society, it was first declared a supporting actor due to its ‘social unreliability’ and then destroyed as a social-professional group under the Stalin’s ‘cultural revolution’ (1928–1932). The pre-revolutionary intelligentsia was replaced by a new Soviet intelligentsia consisting mainly of workers and peasants, performing primarily administrative-managerial and engineering-technical functions, and completely loyal to the Communist Party and Soviet government. The new Soviet intelligentsia resembled the former pre-revolutionary intelligentsia in name only (Schlo¨gel 2002: 160). That was the inglorious historical end of the revolutionary intelligentsia struggle against the tsarist autocracy: in February 1917, the revolutionary intelligentsia scored a ‘Pyrrhic victory’ over the autocracy, which eventually

destroyed both historical Russia and the intelligentsia itself. No wonder that Leonid Luks aptly named the history of the revolutionary intelligentsia in post-reform Russia (1861–1917) ‘a chronicle of triumphant defeat’ (Luks 1993: 58).

Conclusion Despite the differences in evaluations and interpretations of the Russian Revolution of 1917 as well as Bolshevism, neither Weber nor Struve believed that the Bolsheviks could hold on to state power. They considered the fall of the Bolshevik regime just a matter of time. In 1922, following the end of the civil war, Struve wrote: ‘‘Both the initial success of the Bolsheviks and the continued existence of their power in conditions of unheard-of economic devastation, are a complete departure from the usual scheme of the economic interpretation of history. The communist power existing in Russia is completely devoid of any positive economic foundation. It is an essentially political fact, which, if it rests economically on anything, rests on a purely negative basis, on the impoverishment and penury of the people, created by the government itself’’ (Struve 1922: 30–31). Weber also considered the fall of Bolshevism to be predetermined. In November 1918, a year after the bolshevist coup d’e´tat, he stressed: ‘‘Bolshevism is a military dictatorship like any other, and it will collapse like any other’’ (Weber 1988d: 365). Such a pessimistic (today we would say—unrealistic) assessment of the Bolsheviks’ ability to hold on to power puts in question the relevance of Weber’s and Struve’s sociological-historical approach to the analysis of the Bolshevik revolution. Considering Weber’s works, we should probably point to the fundamental limitations of his theory of legitimate domination, which lacks an ideal type of power typical for the political history of the twentieth century, i.e. modern tyranny or revolutionary authority based on mass political mobilization, one-party control over the apparatus of violence, and massive state propaganda.14 For his part, Struve underestimated the potential of social engineering by modern tyrannical regimes and their ability to create both a necessary social-institutional basis and a man of a new (Soviet) type. Thus, in sociological terms, two outstanding thinkers underestimated the variability of the paths to the present and the possibility of ‘modernity without a civil society’, i.e. deprived of or substantially limited in (basically bourgeois) political and civil rights and freedoms. The works of Weber and Struve are of a great importance not only for their ideas and interpretations of the Russian Revolution of 1917, but also, and perhaps to a greater degree, for bringing to light the issues they overlooked, did not focus on, or 14 In the 1960s, Weber’s former student and later famous jurist Loewenstein (1966: 62, 88) pointed this out. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the political and social experience of the first half of the twentieth century, Loewenstein came to the conclusion: ‘‘It seems, therefore, that Max Weber’s typology of the patterns of rule needs to be expanded and complemented if it is to fit the contemporary experience. However, since Weber dealt only with legitimate authority, his framework must be extended to include a new category of illegitimate violence, since this is no less a type of rule than the legitimate patterns’’ (Loewenstein 1966: 90). Later a well-known researcher of German national-socialism and Italian fascism, Stefan Breuer (Breuer 1992: 272), came to similar conclusions in his analysis of the political experience of the twentieth century.

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution

did not evaluate correctly. There is an obvious need to find an explanation for why two outstanding social scientists and political thinkers of the twentieth century did not provide convincing answers to the key questions arising out of the history of the Russian Revolution it would be an explanation that would shed new light on the dramatic political experience of the long-suffering twentieth century.

References Aron, R. (1981). Le Spectateur engage´. Entre´tiens avec Jean-Louis Missika et Dominique Wolton. Paris: E´ditions Julliard. Beetham, D. (1985). Max Weber and the theory of modern politics. Cambridge: Polity Press. Breuer, S. (1992). Soviet communism and Weberian sociology. Journal of Historical Sociology, 5(3), 267–290. Fitzpatrick, S. (2017). What’s left? London Review of Books, 39(7), 13–15. Loewenstein, K. (1966). Max Weber’s political ideas in the perspective of our time. Cambridge, MA: The University of Massachusetts Press. Luks, L. (1993). Rossija mezhdu Zapadom i Vostokom. Sbornik statej (Russia between west and east. A collection of articles). Moscow: Moskovskij filosofskij fond. Mommsen, W. J. (1959). Max Weber und die deutsche Politik. Tu¨bingen: J. C. B. Mohr. Mommsen, W. J. (1997). Max Weber and regeneration of Russia. The Journal of Modern History, 69(1), 1–17. Parkin, F. (2003). Max Weber. London: Routledge. Pipes, R. (1955). Max Weber and Russia. World Politics, 7(3), 371–401. Pipes, R. (1980). Struve: Liberal on the right, 1905–1944. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Schlo¨gel, K. (2002). Jenseits des Großen Oktober. Das Laboratorium der Moderne. Petersburg 1909–1921. Berlin, Wien: Carl Hanser Verlag. Struve, P. (1921). Recenzija na knigu: A. Blok. «Dvenadcat’» (Review of the book: A. Blok. ‘‘Twelve’’). Russkaja mysl’, I–II, 232–233. Struve, P. (1922). Russia. The Slavonic Review, 1(1), 24–39. Struve, P. (1952). Social’naja i ekonomicheskaja istorija Rossii s drevnejshih vremen do nashih, v svjazi s razvitiem russkoj kul’tury i rostom rossijskoj gosudarstvennosti (The social and economic history of Russia from ancient times to the present, and its impact on the development of Russian culture and the rise of the Russian state). Paris. Struve, P. (1991a) [1909]. Intelligencija i revoljucija (Intelligentsia and revolution). In Vekhi. Sbornik statej o russkoj intelligencii. Iz glubiny. Sbornik statej o russkoj revoljucii (pp. 150–166). Moscow: Pravda. Struve, P. (1991b) [1918]. Istoricheskij smysl russkoj revoljucii i nacional’nye zadachi (Historical meaning of the Russian Revolution and national agenda]. In Vekhi. Sbornik statej o russkoj intelligencii. Iz glubiny. Sbornik statej o russkoj revoljucii (pp. 459–477). Moscow: Pravda. Struve, P. (1999a). Izbrannye sochinenija (Collected works). Moscow: Rossijskaja politicheskaja enciklopedija. Struve, P. (1999b) [1917]. V chem revoljucija i kontrrevoljucija? (In what do revolution and counterrevolution consist?). In P. Struve (Ed.), Izbrannye sochinenija (Collected works) (pp. 253–257). Moscow: Rossijskaja politicheskaja enciklopedija. Struve, P. (1999c) [1919]. Razmyshlenija o russkoj revoljucii (Reflections on the Russian Revolution). In P. Struve (Ed.), Izbrannye sochinenija (Collected works) (pp. 258–288). Moscow: Rossijskaja politicheskaja enciklopedija. Struve, P. (1999d) [1922]. Proshloe, nastojashhee, buduschee: mysli o nacional’nom vozrozhdenii Rossii (Past, present, and future: Thoughts about the national revival of Russia]. In P. Struve (Ed.), Izbrannye sochinenija (Collected works) (pp. 319–330). Moscow: Rossijskaja politicheskaja enciklopedija. Weber, M. (1946) [1919]. Politics as a vocation. In From Max Weber. Essays in sociology (Ed. by H. H. Gerth & C. Wright Mills, Trans.) (pp. 77–128). New York: Oxford University Press.

Weber, M. (1978) [1921]. In: G. Roth & C. Wittich (Eds.), Economy and society, 2 Vols. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. Weber, M. (1988a). Gesammelte Politische Schriften (5th ed.). Tu¨bingen: Mohr. Weber, M. (1988b) [1918]. Innere Lage und Außenpolitik. In M. Weber (Eds.), Gesammelte Politische Schriften, ed. by J. Winckelmann (pp. 292—305). 5. Aufl. Tu¨bingen: Mohr. Weber, M. (1988c) [1918]. Deutschlands ku¨nftige Staatsform. I/V. In M. Weber (Eds.), Gesammelte Politische Schriften, ed. by J. Winckelmann (pp. 448—483). 5. Aufl. Tu¨bingen: Mohr. Weber, M. (1988d). Zur Neuordnung Deutschlands. Schriften und Reden, 1918—1920. In M. Weber (Eds.), Gesamtausgabe. Abt. I. Bd. 16, ed. Wolfgang J. Mommsen in collaboration with Wolfgang Schwentker. Tu¨bingen: J. C. B. Mohr. Weber, M. (1989). Zur Russischen Revolution von 1905. Schriften und Reden 1905–1912. In M. Weber (Eds.), Gesamtausgabe. Abt. I. Bd. 10, ed. Wolfgang J. Mommsen in collaboration with Ditmar Dahlmann. Tu¨bingen: J. C. B. Mohr. Weber, M. (1994a) [1918]. Parliament and government in Germany under a new political order. In M. Weber, (Eds.), Political writings, ed. by Peter Lassman and Ronald Speirs (pp. 130–271). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Weber, M. (1994b) [1918]. Socialism. In M. Weber (Eds.), Political writings, ed. by Peter Lassman and Ronald Speirs (pp. 272–303). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Weber, M. (1995a). The Russian Revolutions (ed. by G. C. Wells & P. Baehr, Trans.). Cambridge: Polity Press. Weber, M. (1995b) [1906]. Bourgeois democracy in Russia. In M. Weber (Eds.), The Russian Revolutions (ed. by G. C. Wells & P. Baehr, Trans.) (pp. 41–147). Cambridge: Polity Press. Weber, M. (1995c) [1906]. Russia’s Transition to Pseudo-constitutionalism. In M. Weber (Eds.), The Russian Revolutions (ed. by G. C. Wells & P. Baehr, Trans.) (pp. 148–240). Cambridge: Polity Press. Weber, M. (1995d) [1917]. Russia’s Transition to Pseudo-democracy. In M. Weber (Eds.), The Russian Revolutions (ed. by G. C. Wells & P. Baehr, Trans.) (pp. 241–260). Cambridge: Polity Press. Weber, M. (1995e) [1917]. The Russian Revolution and the peace. In M. Weber. The Russian Revolutions (ed. by G. C. Wells & P. Baehr, Trans.) (pp. 261–266). Cambridge: Polity Press. Wells, G. S., & Baehr P. (1995). Editors’ introduction. In M. Weber (Eds.), The Russian Revolutions (ed. by G. C. Wells & P. Baehr, Trans.) (pp. 1–39). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Before & After Solzhenitsyn

I should like to correct one mistake which has crept into the excellent review which my friend Leonard Schapiro has written of Solzhenitsyn’s Gulag Two [NYR, November 13]. In speaking of the collection of essays entitled “Iz glubiny” (De Profundis), which was conceived and edited by my father, Peter Struve, he says that it was published in Moscow in 1918 “and immediately suppressed.”

This was not quite the case, and its story is actually more interesting. The volume was, indeed, ready for publication in the summer of 1918. I remember very well how my father was collecting material for it, while living more or less in hiding in Moscow, apart from his family. He did so partly through correspondence and partly through personal meetings with such friends of his as Nikolay Berdyaev, Fr. Sergius Bulgakov, Vyacheslav Ivanov, and others, all of whom lived in Moscow. In August 1918, however, my father left Moscow with the intention of emigrating. For the rest of that year both he and I travelled and lived, at first separately and then together, under false names and with false passports, in the North of Russia. Our original plan of crossing the front line after the Allied landings in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk did not materialize, because, contrary to our hope and expectation, the Allies did not advance further south. We ended by going, in December 1918, to Petrograd and then, accompanied by three friends, crossing the Russian-Finnish frontier on foot on two different days, in order to avoid being caught together if such a thing happened. In the meantime, before leaving Moscow, my father had entrusted his two friends who were helping him to prepare the volume for publication, Professor Simon Frank in Saratov and Alexander Izgoev in Petrograd, with seeing the volume through the press.

However, as a result of the wave of repressions which followed the attempt on Lenin’s life, Frank and Izgoev (perhaps after consultation with some of the other contributors) decided to withhold the publication. Thus, the volume was not published in 1918. It was brought out only in the spring of 1921, at the time of the Kronstadt rising, by the workers of the Kushnerev printing office in Moscow. They did it entirely on their own, without consulting anyone. The volume was, of course, immediately confiscated, but a certain number of copies got distributed somehow. The book became a great bibliographical rarity. In 1922, when a number of prominent intellectuals—writers, philosophers, journalists—were expelled from Soviet Russia on Trotsky’s orders, Nikolay Berdyaev brought his own copy of “Iz glubiny” to Berlin. It is now preserved, I believe, in his library in France.

Curiously enough, in 1934, the Soviet book agency “Mezhdunarodnaya kniga” included “Iz, glubiny” in the catalog of its books destined for export. One copy of it was bought by a Dutch scholar, a friend of Professor Frank, and he presented it to the latter. I now possess two Xerox copies of that volume which I had made for me when, in 1960, I tried to arrange its reissue with the University of Michigan Press. I did not succeed in that, but the volume was reissued by YMCA-Press in Paris in 1967. The story of its original publication, based on what Professor Frank had told in his book about my father (New York, Chekhov Publishing House, 1956), is recounted, with some minor inaccuracies, in the introduction to that Paris edition.

Razmyshleniia o Russkoi Revoliutsii [Thoughts about the Russian Revolution].

Sofia: Rossiisko-Bolgarskoe Knigoizdatel'stvo, 1921. Octavo (23 × 15.5 cm). Original printed staple-stitched wrappers 34, [2] pp. Stamp of George Sabo Slavic Books and ownership stamp of Igor Kersha to last page. Wrappers lightly chipped at corners spine extremities frayed old tape repair to spine text toned due to stock, still about very good.

First and only edition, reproducing the text of a public lecture by Petr Struve in November 1919 in Rostov-on-Don without change. The lecture, which blames the Bolshevik Revolution on the poor governance of the Russian Empire by the Tsars, was delivered by Struve during his brief return to the south of Russia in 1919 in an attempt to help the forces of the White General Wrangel during the Russian Civil War. A fascinating political figure, Marxist theorist, economist and publisher Petr Struve (1870-1944) started out his political engagement on the far left. In 1898 he wrote the first Manifesto for RSDLP (Russian Socialist Democratic Labor Party), the party of Lenin until its split into the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks (with Lenin on the side of the Bolsheviks). In the same year Struve published an annotated Russian edition of volume one of &ldquoCapital&rdquo of Karl Marx. However, by 1905 his politics moved to the center and 1905-1915 Struve was a member of the centrist Cadet (Constitutional Democratic) Party. After the Revolution he was forced to flee Russia, briefly returning in 1919 and acting as a foreign minister to Gen. Wrangel. Following the defeat of Wrangel&rsquos troops, Struve was once again forced to flee, eventually settling in Paris. The last pages of the pamphlet contain the publisher&rsquos catalog and locations of this White émigré publishing house throughout Europe and North America. Savine 06195. Listed by Andrei Savine as being "very rare."

Max Weber and Peter Struve on the Russian Revolution

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1. Otto Wilhelm Struve, Zur Erinnerungan den Vater den Geschwistern dargebracht (Karlsruhe, 1895):9. Unpublished 87-page translation by Alan Batten.

2. Alan H. Batten, "The Struves of Pulkovo&mdashA Family of Astronomers," Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 71 (October 1977):345-72. See also Alan H. Batten, Resolute and Undertaking Characters: The Lives of Wilhelm and Otto Struve (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1988), and the series of articles about the Struves by Z. N. Sokolovskaya in the Dictionary of Scientific Biography.

3. Kevin Krisciunas, Astronomical Centers of the World (Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1988):chapter 5, and references therein.

4. Z. N. Novokshanova (Sokolovskaya), Vasilii IAkovlevich Struve (Moscow: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka," 1964):249-73.

5. O. W. Struve, note 1, pp. 29-30, 56.

6. Otto Struve's cousin Georg (1886-1933) was an astronomer in Germany whose son Wilfried (1914-) obtained a Ph.D. in astronomy in 1939, but after World War II became an acoustical engineer.

7. Otto Wilhelm Struve to Simon Newcomb, 13/1 January 1882, Newcomb Archives at the Library of Congress. There are eleven letters of Carl Struve to Newcomb and his wife in this archive.

8. Otto Struve, "Abridged Record of Family Traits," National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 1954?.

9. On one of Otto's immigration applications to the United States in 1921 he lists his nationality as Estonian. He may have feared that American officials would not give him a visa if they thought all Russians were Communists. Edwin B. Frost to Henry de Bach, July

26, 1921, Yerkes Observatory Archives. Also, Struve Archives at Bancroft Library, ID number 67/135, identity papers.

10. Gerard P. Kuiper to T. G. Cowling, August 7, 1963, Kuiper Archives, University of Arizona.

11. Lieutenant Struve is pictured on p. 5 of James S. Sweitzer, "A Most Exceptional Star: The Life of Otto Struve," Griffith Observer, 51 (September 1987):3-11.

12. Otto Struve, "Footnote to History," Science, 129 (1959):60.

13. Otto Struve, Autobiographical Materials, Bancroft Library, ID number 67/135.

14. T. G. Cowling, "Otto Struve 1897-1963," Biographical Memoirs of the Fellows of the Royal Society, 10 (1964):283-304, p. 284.

15. Sarah Kuiper Lansberg, "Stories told by or about Dr. Otto Struve," unpublished notes, 1963?.

16. F. D. M. (only author's initials given), "New Honors for Dr. Struve, the Wisconsin Astronomer Who Once Was Russia's Man without a Country," Milwaukee Journal, May 9, 1937. Obtained from Yerkes Observatory Archives.

17. Richard Luckett, The White Generals: An Account of the White Movement and the Russian Civil War (New York: Viking, 1971):349-54, 381-84.

18. By coincidence, a student and colleague of Wilhelm Struve was Wilhelm Wrangel, who became a Russian admiral. See Joseph Ashbrook, "The Crucial Years of Wilhelm Struve," Sky and Telescope, 25 (June 1963):326-27. Peter Wrangel was a descendent of Wilhelm Wrangel.

20. Edwin Bryant Frost, An Astronomer's Life (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1933):255-56.

21. Paul Guthnick to Edwin B. Frost, December 25, 1920, Yerkes Observatory Archives. Original in German.

22. Eva Struve to Edwin B. Frost, April 11, 1921, Yerkes Observatory Archives.

23. Edwin B. Frost, "A Family of Astronomers. Hermann Struve, 1854-1920 Ludwig Struve, 1858-1920," Popular Astronomy, 29 (1921 ):53641, p. 539.

According to Gleb Struve (Otto's second cousin), Peter Struve (Gleb's father) may have played a role in putting Otto in touch with Frost. Peter Struve was an advisor to Generals Denikin and

Wrangel and traveled back and forth from Berlin to southern Russia during the Civil War (letter of Alan Batten to K. Krisciunas, July 27, 1988). He was also a prolific writer on economic and political matters. See two-volume biography by Richard Pipes, Struve: Liberal on the Left (1870-1905) and Struve: Liberal on the Right (1905-1944 ) (Harvard University Press, 1970 and 1980). Peter Struve's collected works, numbering 663 items, were published in a fifteen-volume edition in 1970 by University Microfilms.

24. Edwin B. Frost to Otto Struve, March 2, 1921, Bancroft Library, ID number 67/135. A copy exists in the Yerkes Observatory Archives.

25. Otto Struve to Edwin B. Frost, April 28, 1921, Yerkes Observatory Archives.

26. Otto Struve to Edwin B. Frost, March 11, 1921, Yerkes Observatory Archives. Original in German.

27. Otto Struve to Edwin B. Frost, April 12, 1921, Yerkes Observatory Archives.

28. Edwin B. Frost to Harry Pratt Judson, April 14, 1921, Yerkes Observatory Archives.

29. Edwin B. Frost, note 23, pp. 540-41.

30. Edwin B. Frost to Alexander Kaznakoff, October 10, 1921, Yerkes Observatory Archives.

31. Cowling, note 14, p. 285. According to Cowling, who is probably basing his version on notes from Mary Struve, Otto arrived in Wisconsin wearing a green hat, blue coat, brown trousers, and tan shoes. In any case, he must have been quite a sight!

32. Edwin B. Frost, note 20, p. 256.

33. There is some confusion as to the number of Otto's sisters. Did he have one or two? In Guthnick's letter to Frost, note 21 above, it states, "eine jüngere Schwester vor den Augen des Vaters und eines Bruders beim Baden ertrunken," meaning "a younger sister [of Otto] drowned right within view of [her] father and brother." This could mean "a sister younger than Otto" or "the younger of Otto's two sisters." Given that the drowning was known to Guthnick, it must have been known to Eva Struve in Berlin (Otto's aunt). Another sister must have existed, for in the letter of Eva Struve to Frost (note 22), dated April 11, 1921, it says, ''My nephew's mother and sister are at Simferopol in Crimea.'' Also, in Sokolovskaya's article on Ludwig Struve in the Dictionary of Scientific Biography, she

refers to a six-year-old sister of Otto dying in 1919, and refers to Otto's brother Werner and another sister.

34. S. Chandrasekhar, interview by Kevin Krisciunas, October 6, 1987, American Institute of Physics, Oral History Project, p. 20.

35. Naomi Greenstein, "Reminiscences of Otto and Mary Struve," cassette tape monologue of January 21, 1988, as suggested by a list of questions prepared by Kevin Krisciunas. American Institute of Physics, Oral History Project.

36. Letter of Donald E. Osterbrock to Kevin Krisciunas, July 9, 1988. Osterbrock attributes this to Su-Shu Huang, who worked with Struve in Berkeley.

37. Interview of Paul and Helen Jose, Fort Davis, Texas, January 15, 1988, by Kevin Krisciunas and James Sweitzer. The Joses did graduate work in astronomy at the University of Michigan in the early 1930s. Paul Jose worked at McDonald Observatory in the late 1940s and the 1950s. They still own the Struves' incredibly long dining room table and eleven of the original twelve chairs, which Mary and Otto Struve had at House A at the observatory. More on Paul Jose is to be found in Evans and Mulholland's book (note 45).

38. Otto's mother died on October 1, 1964, at the age of ninety. Mary Struve was discovered to have died on August 5, 1966. The estimated date of death was July 19. The cause of her (natural) death could not be determined. (Death certificates obtained from the Alameda County, California, recorder.) I am told by a number of sources that after World War II Mary Struve was very much a recluse.

39. Dernières Nouvelles (Paris), No. 614, 1922, in Russian.

40. Materials pertaining to the Astronomers Relief Committee were obtained from the Yerkes Observatory Archives.

41. The most complete published list is by A. Unsöld in Mitteilungen der Astronomischen Gesellschaft (1963, pp. 5-22), which lists 444 papers and abstracts, with references to data published in Harvard Cards, and observatory reports. However, in the Bancroft Library at Berkeley there is Struve's own list compiled in early 1962, which is 876 items long. We must subtract two from that list because they are errata, and four more because they are the second halves of articles published in Sky and Telescope. But we must add three books, twenty-one items in Unsöld's list, one from Popular Astronomy, and twelve articles from Sky and Telescope (May 1962 to April 1963),

hence the number 907. About 8 percent of these are abstracts and observatory reports.

42. The most prolific astronomer, according to the number of published items, was Ernst Öpik (1893-1985), who published 1,094 items. Letter of John McFarland, librarian at Armagh Observatory, to K. Krisciunas, February 27, 1986.

43. Full references to Struve's published work are included in the selected bibliography at the end of this memoir.

44. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, An Autobiography and Other Recollections, ed. Katherine Haramundanis. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984):169.

45. David S. Evans and J. Derral Mulholland, Big and Bright: A History of the McDonald Observatory (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1986).

46. Bengt Strömgren, interview by Lillian Hoddeson and Gordon Baym, May 6 and 13, 1976, American Institute of Physics, Oral History Project, pp. 26, 46.

47. W. W. Morgan, interview by David DeVorkin, August 8-9, 1978, American Institute of Physics, Oral History Project, p. 13.

48. E. A. Milne, "On the Award of the Gold Medal to Professor Otto Struve, Director of the Yerkes and McDonald Observatories," Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 194 (1944):112-20, p. 117. One is reminded of the twentieth century Indian mathematician Ramanujan, for whom "every positive integer was one of his personal friends." See James R. Newman, "Srinivasa Ramanujan,'' in The World of Mathematics, ed. James R. Newman (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1956):368-376, p. 375.

49. Otto Struve and Velta Zebergs, Astronomy of the 20th Century (New York and London: Macmillan, 1962):305-12.

50. Margherita Hack, "Epsilon Aurigae," Scientific American (October 1984):89-105. See also 1982-1984 Eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae, ed. Robert E. Stencel (Washington, D.C.: NASA, 1985), NASA Conference Publication 2384.

51. Chandrasekhar interview, 1987, note 34, p. 9.

52. G. H. Herbig, "Introduction: A Personal and Scientific Appreciation of Otto Struve," in Spectroscopic Astrophysics: An Assessment of the Contributions of Otto Struve, ed. G. H. Herbig. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1970):1-3, p. 2.

53. W. W. Morgan, interview by Kevin Krisciunas, October 7, 1987.

54. S. Chandrasekhar, interview by Spencer Weart, May 17-18, 1977, American Institute of Physics, Oral History Project, p. 70.

55. Jesse Greenstein, "Otto Struve," cassette tape monologue [July] 1988, American Institute of Physics, Oral History Project, p. 6.

56. Chandrasekhar interview, 1987, note 34, pp. 14-15.

57. W. H. McCrea, "Clustering of Astronomers," Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 25 (1987):1-22, p. 13.

58. J. B. Hearnshaw, The Analysis of Starlight: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Astronomical Spectroscopy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986):337.

59. Morgan interview, 1978, note 47, p. 13.

60. Evans and Mulholland, note 45, p. 31. See also Ciel et Terre (1934):97-100 and (1935):170.

61. Struve had wanted Strömgren to come for three years, but they agreed that it would be half that. It was agreed from the start to be a temporary appointment. Strömgren interview, 1976, note 46, pp. 29, 48.

62. David H. DeVorkin, "The Maintenance of a Scientific Institution: Otto Struve, the Yerkes Observatory, and Its Optical Bureau during the Second World War," Minerva 18 (Winter 1980):595-623.

63. Otto Struve, "Cooperation in Astronomy," Scientific Monthly 50 (1940):142-47 DeVorkin, note 62, pp. 603-4 Evans and Mulholland, note 45, pp. 98-100.

64. Leo Goldberg, "The Founding of Kitt Peak," Sky and Telescope, 65 (March 1983):228-32.

65. Chandrasekhar interview, 1987, note 34, p. 25.

66. After his success in building the 100-inch telescope at Mount Wilson, Hale gave up the directorship in 1922. W. S. Adams succeeded him in this role, but as the person in charge of operations. Hale continued on as "honorary director in charge of policy." See Helen Wright, Explorer of the University: A Biography of George Ellery Hale (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1966):345.

67. Chandrasekhar interview, 1977, note 54, p. 71.

68. Sarah Kuiper Lansberg, interview by Kevin Krisciunas, January 16, 1988.

70. Otto Struve to Mary Struve, January 5, 1949, Bancroft Library.

71. Chandrasekhar interview, 1987, note 34, p. 26.

72. A. van Hoof, "The Beta Canis Majoris Stars," in Herbig, note 52, pp. 343-63, 361.

73. Ruth S. Freitag to Kevin Krisciunas, February 23, 1988.

74. A. I. Slastenov, Astronomy at the University of Khar'kov over 150 Years (in Russian) (Khar'kov: Khar'kovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta imeni A. M. Gor'kogo, 1955):64-66, p. 64. See also Vladimir Kourganoff, "Otto Struve: Scientist and Humanist," Sky and Telescope, 75 (April 1988):379-81 and Kevin Krisciunas, "More About Otto Struve," Sky and Telescope 76 (September 1988):229-30.

Let us consider the grammatical structure of the first sentence of the quote ". . having betrayed his native land, he went abroad and settled in the USA." Given the temporal ordering of these three clauses, "having betrayed his native land" came before his emigration, and so it must refer to Struve's activity as an officer in the White Russian Army. (I thank Prof. Kourganoff for his help in clarifying the original Russian.)

75. Death certificate obtained from Alameda County, California, recorder.

76. Beverly T. Lynds, interview by Kevin Krisciunas, August 12, 1988.

77. David S. Heeschen, letter to K. Krisciunas, August 12, 1988. The 300-foot transit telescope at NRAO met its demise on November 15, 1988. See Gerrit L. Verschuur, "Reminiscences of the 300-Foot," Sky and Telescope, 77 (March 1989):252-53.

78. Otto Struve to I. I. Rabi, October 31, 1961, Bancroft Library.

79. S. Chandrasekhar, "Otto Struve. 1897-1963," Astrophysical Journal, 139 (February 15, 1964):423.

80. Sky and Telescope, 68 (October 1984):312.

81. Bart J. Bok, "Otto Struve Memorial Symposium," Sky and Telescope, 32 (August 1966):68-71.

82. M. Hack, ed., Modern Astrophysics: A Memorial to Otto Struve (Paris: Gauthier-Villars, and New York: Gordon and Breach, 1967).

83. A. H. Batten, ed., Extended Atmospheres and Circumstellar Matter in Spectroscopic Binary Systems (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1973). IAU Symposium 51 (Struve Memorial Symposium).

Watch the video: 60. Geburtstag Peter Struve